In an integrator, if a varying parameter element C(v)=C0(1-v/2E) or R(v)=R0(1-v/E) is used instead of the usual fixed parameter element C or R, the responce of the integator becomes v=kt. This is a perfect linear charging condition. In practice, realization of such an ideal characteristic is hardly expected. In this paper, ideal and practical cases are dealt with using a BaTiO3 condenser, the characteristics of which are shown in a diagram. If this condencer is used under proper conditions, the voltage utility factor of the integrator becomes about 60% instead of 20% with the usual fixed parameter element. For its linearity, simplicity and high efficiency, this device could be used widely in measuring apparatus, TV sets, computors, servo-mechanism etc.
The humidity distribution close to the surface of water, soil and some leaves is observed by using a small electric resistance hygrometer and a thermistor thermometer, the former having newly been developed by Prof. K. Shiba and the author. In each case, a region of linear gradient of water-vapour pressure is found, which is considered as a diffusion layer. The diffusion coefficient is determined from the data of gradient of water-vapour pressure and the rate of evaporation of water in a vessel. The value obtained is 0.239 cm2/s at a mean temperature of 14.8°C and a mean atmospheric pressure of 767mmHg. The rate of evaporation of water from some leaves is calculated by the observed water-vapour pressure gradients with the value of diffusion coefficient. The results are tabulated.
By developing the principle of a usual vibrating-plate-viscometer1), this industrial visco-elasticity-meter has been made. In certain condition the mechanical impedance Z of a flat plate immersed in a liquid and vibrating in its own plane is proportional to the viscoelasticity or complex rigidity G=E+jωη, and therefore the measurement of viscoelasticity is reduced to the separation of the real part and the imaginary part of Z. In this instrument the real part and the imaginary part of the voltage proportional to Z is separated and indicated as deflections of two ammeters, one of which, then, indicates viscosity of the liquid to be measured, and the other indicates rigidity. Values of the viscosity and the rigidity of several liquids (polyisobutylene, millet-jelly and glycerin) are calculated from experimental data and theoretical equation on the assumption that this viscoelasticity-meter is an absolute measuring-instrument.
An interpolation formula for transport phenomena in rarefied gas is derived; that is Q-(1-c)Qs+CQD, where Q is the observed transport quantity, Qs the calculated value based upon the usual kinetic theory of transport phenomena, and QD the calculated value for the same quantity by the free-molecule dynamics. C is a function defined by _??_, where L is the dimension of a space along the axis of non-uniformity and λj the j-dimentional mean free path of a gas molecule. j is usually 3, but when the formula for QD implies a factor such as pressure gradient or temperature gradient, j becomes 2. This formula contains no empirical constants and has a simpler form, never the less, it agrees well with many experimental results; i.e. Kundt's viscosity change with decreasing gas pressure, Knudsen's gas flow through capillary tube, Millikan's oil droplet movement in rarefied air and Soddy's heat conduction by rarefied gases.
The viscosity and shear elasticity of liquid are determined by measuring the resonant frequency and conductance of a torsional crystal immersed in the liquid to be measured. Procedure of measurement has been simplified by using a phase-sensitive detector circuit for measuring the conductance instead of an electrical bridge used by Mason and Rouse in their previous investigations. Viscosities of saveral organic solvents measured by this method agree with those measured by Ubbelohde viscometers within two per cent. Measured viscoelatic properties of solution of polymethyl methacrylate in benzen are in good agreement with Rouse's theory.
Crystal structure of thin nickel films deposited on glass surface under various conditions is investigated by means of electron diffraction. When the base temperature is below about 100m°C in high vacuum, the orientation of (110) plane parallel to the base surface becomes noticeable with increasing thickness of the film. Presence of argon gas (0.5 to 2.OmmHg) also increases the degree of (110) orientation. How-ever, variation of the base temperature and further addition of argon gas give rise to orientations other than (110). Beeck's conclusion that a conspicuously oriented nickel film with (110) plane parallel to the base surface has the (110) plane exposed on its surface is not supported by this work.