応用物理
Online ISSN : 2188-2290
Print ISSN : 0369-8009
ISSN-L : 0369-8009
26 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の13件中1~13を表示しています
  • 服部 璋
    1957 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 79-84
    発行日: 1957/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    By the resolving power method, it is shown that, there are Nos. I, II and III and also A and B types of the screen. Their characteristics are described. Vibrating the screen by an electromagnetic tuning fork, the optical image seen on the screen is examined and the mechanism of the formation of image is studied. By using an apparatus for measuring the resolving power and a goniophotometer, a method for determining the performance of the screen is devised with which various focusing screens are tested. Translucent screen with light scattering particles in it is found to have the characteristics of a good image receptor and the use of carnauba wax makes it a good focusing screen.
  • 田中 俊一
    1957 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 85-91
    発行日: 1957/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Using the apparatus and methods previously reported by the author), reflection characteristics of several kinds of ground glass, prepared by rubbing with alundum of 100 to 1000 mesh, are measured and the following results are obtained.
    1. So far as the roughness of the surface is not very fine and both the angle of incidence and reflection are not very large, the specular component follows Fresnel's formula. However, when the surface is of fine roughness, for example, prepared with # 1000, the so-called “Sheen” phenomenon is observed.
    2. The distribution of the relative area of mirror facets having various inclination to the mean surface resembles normal distribution, but the kurtosis is somewhat larger.
    3. When the angle of incidence is equal to 70° in case of the samples with # 100, # 150 and # 300, the maskings of mirror facets by adjacent facets are about 20, 17 and 15% respectively.
    4. The diffuse component, which is resolved by the analytical method of polarization, may be mainly due to the multiple reflections. The maximum value of diffuse component has linear relation to the logarithm of the r. m. s. height of the roughness and the larger the angle of incidence or the coarser the roughness of the surface, the larger the value of the diffuse component.
  • 田村 稔, 久保 田広
    1957 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 92-95
    発行日: 1957/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Placing a photographic negative in an aperture stop of an imaging system, the spectrum of Ag grains in the photographic emulsion is shown as the Fraunhofer's diffraction pattern. Power spectra of commercial photographic materials were measured in this way. Autocorrelation function of Ag grains is calculated as the Fourier's transformation of the power spectrum, and the result is compared with the value obtained by autocorrelator of Ohzu and Kubota. They show good agreement.
  • 大頭 仁, 久保 田広
    1957 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 96-101
    発行日: 1957/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Autocorrelation function of photographic emulsion is measured optically, using recording optical autocorrelator constructed in the authors' laboratory.
    Following results are obtained:
    (1) If we take a sufficient area (i.e. 100×100μ2), granularity pattern can be seen as an ergodic ensemble, that is, it is possible to treat it with the statistical theory of stationary time series.
    (2) One dimentional autocorrelation function (correlogramm) of photographic grains shows a periodic character, whereas the one in case of two dimensional, no periodic character could be seen.
    (3) Mean diameter of the clump of Ag grains is determined as about 5μ.
    (4) Autocorrelation functions of several commercial emulsions are measured and a constant (ƒn), which determines granularity characteristics, is introduced.
    (5) Autocorrelation function varies as the macrodensity of emulsion changes, and when the macrodensity is about 0.6, the correlation becomes maximum.
    (6) Power spectrum obtained by Fourier transformation from autocorrelation function shows good agreement with the value of power spectrum obtained by Tamura and Kubota from diffraction pattern.
    (7) A consideration on the relation of granularity to resolving power of the emulsion is discussed.
  • 蒲生 秀也
    1957 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 102-114
    発行日: 1957/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    The sampling theorem for the amplitude of waves by a circular aperture is derived; namely, the complex amplitude F (ρ, φ) in the image plane is expressed as
    F(ρ, φ)=_??_Fnns/κα)Cns (ρ, φ) (1)
    Fnns/κα)=1/2π_??_Fns/κα, φ)exp(-inφ)dφ (2)
    Cns(ρ, φ)=exp(inφ)Jn(καρ)2λns/Jn'(λns){(καρ)2ns2} (3)
    where α is aperture constant, ρ, φ polar coordinates, κ=2π/λ and λ wave length, λns s-th zero of the Bessel function Jn(χ). The sampling functions {Cns} satisfy the orthogonal relation
    1/2π_??_Cns(ρ, φ)Cmt*(ρ, φ)ρdρdφ=2δnmδst/{καJn'(λns)}2 (4)
    and Cns is unity upon a sampling circle of radius λns/κα and is zero upon the other sampling circles of the same order (Fig. 1). The sampling coefficient Fnns/κα) is obtained by the integration with angle φ of the complex amplitude at a sampling circle multiplied by exp (-inφ). At each sampling circle of order zero a sampling coefficient is obtained and at each sampling circle of non-zero order two sampling coefficients Fnns/κα) and F-nns/κα) are obtained. There is an important relation between the above sampling coefficient and the coefficient of Fourier-Bessel expansion of the pupil function:
    Kns=4πFnns/κα)/(i)n{καJn'(λns)}2 (5)
    and the pupil function ƒ (r, θ) is expressed as
    ƒ (γ, θ)=_??__??_ Knsexp(inθ)Jn(rnsγ/α) (6)
    The number of sampling coefficients whose sampling circles are included within a circle of area S of the image, namely, the number of degrees of freedom, is estimated as πα2S2 by considering the distribution of zeros of Jn(χ) and by using known results for rectangular apertures.
    That the Fourier transform of intensity distribution of an image by a circular aperture α vanishes outside the region of a circle of radius 2α in various degrees of coherence of illumination, is shown by considering that the intensity is described by a series of products CnsCmt* and Fourier transforms of CnsCmt* vanish outside the circle mentioned above as it is clarified by means of convolution integrals or analytically in Appendix 2. Because of the limited spectrum of the intensity distribution mentioned above the sampling theorem for intensity distribution is obtained by putting 2α in place of α into equations (1)_??_(3).
  • 宮本 健郎
    1957 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 114-120
    発行日: 1957/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    When the image quality of a photographic lens is evaluated, it has been emphasized recently that it must be done in relation to the characteristics of it receiver (emulsion, imageorthicon). To obtain the best result in designing optical system in combination with the receiver, an analysis is made how to correct various aberrations. As a measure of over-all image quality of the whole system (lens+receiver), the generalized Strehl definition (S. D) is chosen.
    The intensity distribution of light in slit image formed by a lens is expressed approximately by the sum of two error functions corresponding to image core and halo, and the diffusion of receiver is expressed by another error function. By using above approximation, the response of the whole system is obtained and a formula for S. D. is deduced.
    This method is applied to express the intensity distribution of light in slit image which is produced by a lens having primary and secondary spherical aberrations, (the intensity distribution is obtained by spot diagram). As the result, the over corrected type is better, when the receiver has a small amount of diffusion and the under corrected type is preferred, when it has a large one.
  • 原留 美吉
    1957 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 121-124
    発行日: 1957/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Approximate calculation of tristimulus values of subtractive dichromatic mixtures for the color temperature conversion filters by the centroid method is described.
    The relations among the values of differences in 30 selected ordinate methods and micro reciprocal degrees are investigated.
    The results of these calculation can be adopted as supplementary curve for dichromatic mixtures in the following conditions.
    1) The spectral distribution of these filters is similar to that of the conversion filter for black-body spectra.
    2) The chromaticity coordinates of these filters are situated in the range of Dt=±20 L. P. D. (Least perceptible chromaticity difference).
  • 東 堯, 小黒 正光
    1957 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 124-129
    発行日: 1957/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    A search has been conducted to find some available neutral density filters made of evaporated metallic films. Best results have been obtained by the evaporation of the metal whose composition is 80 percent nickel and 20 percent chromium in weight, i.e. the same composition as chromel A. The method of producing those filters is to evaporate in vacuum either chromel A or Ni and Cr separately.
    When evaporated properly on a fused qualtz plate, chromel A gives a filter of quite neutral density from 240 mμ, to 2.6μ, with a maximum transmittance deviation of 18% over this region. Having quite neutral reflectance, the filter can be also used as a neutral semitransparent mirror. It does not blur out images by lens in optical systems, because of little diffusibility of the chromel A film.
    When heated properly in air, chromel A films become very hard increasing their transmittance, and this internal mechanism is investigated by means of electron microscope and electron diffraction equipment.
    At present, the production of neutral density wedges is in progress.
  • 田幸 敏治, 石黒 浩三
    1957 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 129-133
    発行日: 1957/03/10
    公開日: 2009/04/02
    ジャーナル フリー
    When the electron beam streams along the surface of a metallic diffraction grating, the emission of electro-magnetic waves can be expected. From the consideration of Huygens' principle, Smith and Purcell showed that the wave length of the emitted wave should be λ=d-1-cosθ). In the present paper, it is proved that when the relativistic correction is considered, the same relation can be obtained from the assumption that the radiation is the dipole radiation from the running dipole effected by the electron and its image charge. It is also shown that the intensity of the radiation is proportional to V3/2J, when V is the electron accelerating potential and J is the electron current and it is in good agreement with experimental results.
  • 佐柳 和男
    1957 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 134-135
    発行日: 1957/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 久保田 広, 鈴木 恒子
    1957 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 135-136
    発行日: 1957/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 蓮沼 宏
    1957 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 137
    発行日: 1957/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 沢木 司
    1957 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 137a
    発行日: 1957/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
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