応用物理
Online ISSN : 2188-2290
Print ISSN : 0369-8009
ISSN-L : 0369-8009
28 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
  • 神山 雅英, 森 一夫
    1959 年 28 巻 1 号 p. 1-9
    発行日: 1959/01/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 天野 嘉次, 可知 宗好, 篠田 軍治
    1959 年 28 巻 1 号 p. 10-13
    発行日: 1959/01/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    Micro-structure of the surface of Cu-Be alloy containing 1.34 wt% Be during ageing at various temperatures is studied by microscope.
    Striations appear on the surface of grains during ageing at 300°C for 6_??_8 hrs and in about 10 hrs structure of grain boundaries changes to that consisting of double grain boundaries. Distance between the double grain boundaries increases with the ageing until the precipitation is completed.
    These results suggest a close relation of precipitation to the thermal etching phenomenon.
  • 四手井 綱彦, 藤村 亮一郎
    1959 年 28 巻 1 号 p. 14-21
    発行日: 1959/01/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Some electroluminescent ZnS; Cu, Pb phosphors of powder type have been prepared with different concentrations of impurities at two firing temperatures, 1000°C and 1100°C. They are excited by ac field of 60 c. p. s. between 2 kV/cm and 15 kV/cm and the variation of such characters as reflection color, after glow, electroluminescency, homogeneity and hardness of the burn-ups, with the impurity concentration and firing temperature are tabulated.
    From this experiment, it seems that the brightness of electroluminescence is proportional to V5, where V is the applied voltage within the range of brightness ratio 1: 104. The build up of light intensity after application of ac field is expressed experimentally as Lo{1-exp (-αt)}, and the succeeding decay for a few hours, as Lo (1+kt). The values of α and k are tabulated for typical voltages and binders. Although this decay is of the same type as that reported by THORNTON, the sample does not deteriorate; it revives after a few hours by the removal of field and the next application of field gives rise to an intensity higher than before.
    Using Maxwellian distribution for freed electrons, estimation is made of the portion of electrons that are acceralated by field and have energy greater than 3.7 eV, the band gap of host crystal ZnS. The portion increases with a high power of V within an adequate range of field strength. It is then inferred that the light intensity is proportional to the number of such electrons and that the acceralating field would be about 10 times greater than the average applied field if the collision relaxation time is assumed to be 10-13 sec.
    Assuming a simple time-dependent equation for electrons freed by field, formulas similar to those obtained experimentally are derived for the time-dependence of light intensity. The coeffi-cients are compared and the light emission efficiency is estimated to be of the order of 104 photons per electron.
  • 芝 亀吉
    1959 年 28 巻 1 号 p. 21-26
    発行日: 1959/01/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The heat flow from the surface of a solid body is usually measured with so called Schmidt's belt. But the heat flow thus obtained is with the belt covering the body surface. By proper cooling or heating from the free surface of the belt, if the body surface is made to remain at the same temperature as it would be if bare, the heat flow measured will be the correct one.
  • 和田 正信, 高橋 正, 福田 正明
    1959 年 28 巻 1 号 p. 26-30
    発行日: 1959/01/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    For the observation of light waves emitted by electroluminescent cells, the usual procedure employed is that the light is first received by a photomultiplier tube and amplified, then the wave form is thrown on a Braun tube screen. By this means, only the alternating component of light waves can be observed. Investigation of electroluminescence requires not only the alternating component but the height from zero level to the lowest value of the light waves to be determined. For this purpose, an apparatus for zero level indication on Braun tube oscillograph was devised. The principle of performance is that, during one cycle in every five cycles, potential of photocathode of the photomultiplier tube is raised higher than that of the first dynode suppressing the photoemission, and consequently the output of the photomultiplier tube is brought down to zero level. This apparatus is all-electronic and should be available for high frequency light waves. However, a double pulse decatron, used for counting cycles, limits the available frequency to a few kilocycles which is nevertheless considerably higher than with a mechanical light chopper.
  • 矢島 達夫
    1959 年 28 巻 1 号 p. 30-39
    発行日: 1959/01/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Mechanism of causing 1/ƒ noise in germanium single crystal in connection with the surface electronic energy structure of semiconductor, especially with two different surface states, is studied experimentally under various surface conditions.
    Main results obtained are: (a) By surface treatment such as polishing or ion bombardment that gives high surface recombination velocity, 1/ƒ noise always shows marked decrease in comparison with etching. (b) In the course of heating or being left either in air or in oxygen after etching, 1/ƒ noise varies with time in different ways depending on the temperature and initial chemical treatment, accompanied with nearly parallel variation of minority carrier lifetime. There is some indication of 1/ƒ noise tending to decrease by the growth of oxide layer. (c) Ambients such as wet air, O3, NH3 and I2 which are of the character as slow state, make 1/ƒ noise always increase in comparison with vacuum. (d) Some organic liquid ambients have a great influence on 1/ƒ noise.
    As regards the surface state, it is concluded that, the slow state tends to increase 1/ƒ noise and the fast state to decrease it. These actions are discussed by referring to the existing 1/ƒ noise models.
  • 木下 是雄, 夏目 光造
    1959 年 28 巻 1 号 p. 39-46
    発行日: 1959/01/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    YAKE (pronounced yah-keh) is a general term for those deteriorated areas of a polished surface of glass which are different in reflectivity, scattering power and other optical properties from the mother surface. English word for YAKE would be STAIN(S) or TARNISHING. YAKE is classified into two categories, AOYAKE (ah-oh-yah-keh) and SHIROYAKE (shee-roh-yah-keh). The former denotes the stains, coloured often amber or purple by the interference of light, which actually are the patches on the glass surface where the refractive index is lower. The latter represents the white stains which are the patches where light is scattered by small particles of some kind of salt crystallites or by minute irregularities of the surface. Frequent outbreak of YAKE on lenses made of newer kinds of optical glasses, especially in the warm and humid summer season, has been an obstacle to the camera industry of Japan.
    Experimental studies on YAKE artificially produced by immersion of glass in acid, alkaline, or neutral solutions will be described in this series of papers. Part I will be devoted to the synopsis of previous studies and to the description of the method of preparation of artificial YAKE. In Part II, detailed observation of the breath figures produced on stained glass surfaces will be described. (To be continued).
  • 足立 巌
    1959 年 28 巻 1 号 p. 47-54
    発行日: 1959/01/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    In Ronchi test, when the Ronchi screen of low frequency is used, Ronchi fringes are explained simply by geometrical optics and the amount of aberration is easily found. Non-symmetrical aberration in particular, the solution of which by Hartmann test is troublesome, can be treated correctly.
    In preparing a 50cm φ•F/3 Schmidt camera, Ronchi test was used not only for testing the correcting plate during figuring but also for examining the homogeneity of the glass and the astigmatic effect of the correcting plate.
    As the astigmatism on optical axis of an axially symmetrical optical system can be considered by suitable assumption as related to inhomogeneity of refractive index, Ronchi test is an interesting means of examining the homogeneity of glass.
    Allowing for a small spherical aberration, from geometrically obtained permissible astigmatic effect of the correcting plate, permissible maximum of the variation of refractive index for the homogeneity of the glass was found by calculation to be 0.5 10-5.
  • 森 伸雄
    1959 年 28 巻 1 号 p. 54-58
    発行日: 1959/01/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    Production of aerosol counter has been reported on several occasions but so far theoretical or experimental relation of the pulse height observed by the counter to the aerosol particle size has not been referred to.
    Mie's theorem on light scattering is used to compute this relation. With a convergent beam of incident light, scattered light from aerosol particles is received by the counter on the forward front and on the lateral side, and the respective pulse heights are observed.
    Denoting the incident light wavelength by λ(0) and the particle radius by R0, and assuming the refractive index of the particle to be 1.33, the following results are obtained: (1) The pulse is higher with the frontal receiving system than with the lateral receiving system. (2) In receiving the light from the forward front, the curve representing the relation between the pulse height and R0 or x(=2πR0(0)) has a maximum of pulse height at R0=O.55μ or x_??_7.0. On the other hand, in receiving the light from the side, the pulse height increases gradually with the increase of R0.
  • 吉岡 正三, 目良 光男
    1959 年 28 巻 1 号 p. 59-60
    発行日: 1959/01/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 坂田 亮
    1959 年 28 巻 1 号 p. 60-61
    発行日: 1959/01/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
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