応用物理
Online ISSN : 2188-2290
Print ISSN : 0369-8009
ISSN-L : 0369-8009
28 巻 , 5 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
  • 山下 博典, 伊吹 順章
    1959 年 28 巻 5 号 p. 253-262
    発行日: 1959/05/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Miniature yet high sensitive photoconductive cells have been developed by using single crystals of CdS. Description is given of the manufacturing process of the cell and its characteristics concerning dark current, photocurrent, spectral sensitivity, time constant and others, and also of several industrial appliances such as apparatus for measuring the intensity distribution of trans-mitted light, micro-photometer for photo-plates, sensitive relays for photometer, automatic weight selector and automatic temperature controller.
  • 野中 守
    1959 年 28 巻 5 号 p. 262-266
    発行日: 1959/05/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the measurement of spectral distribution of fluorescent lamps, an error arises from the sensitivity of a spectroradiometer being influenced by the states of polarization of incident light.
    The following equation for the transmission factor of a monochromator is derived from Fresnel's law.
    Tθ=T (1+tcos 2θ), (1)
    where Tθ is the transmission factor of a monochromator for radiant flux Φθ, the electric vector of which is on the plane inclined by an angle θ to the plane of incidence of the monochromator prism. Experimental results show that the radiant flux emitted by both tungsten lamps used as sub-standards of spectral distribution and fluorescent lamps is approximately expressed by the following equation,
    Φθ=Φ [1+øcos (2θ+α)], (2)
    where α is a phase difference.
    For such receivers as phototubes and photomultipliers, their sensitivity for polarized light is approximately represented by
    Sθ=S [1+s cos (2θ+β)], (3)
    where Sθ is the sensitivity for radiant flux Φθ and β is a phase difference. This is an established expression used in past publications.
    If Φθ enters the monochromator, the output i of the receiver is given by
    i=∫0ΦθTθSθ=EST[1+φt/2cosα+st/2cosβ+φs/2cos(α-β)], (4)
    where
    i=∫0Φθ=2πΦ,
    and E is the radiant flux.
    Using the subscripts Wλ and Fλ to the above quantities concerning the sub-standard and the fluorescent lamps at wavelength λ respectively, one obtains the following equation.
    E/E_??_i/(1+Δλ) (5)
    where
    Δλ=tλ/2(φcosα-φcosα)+/2{φcos(αλ)-φcos(αλ)}. (6)
    The polarization error is represented by Δλ.
    If Δλ does not vary with wavelength, no polarization error arises in the measurement of the relative value. However, Δλ varies usually with wavelength, and the polarization error is given by
    (Δ)λ, λ'=|Δλ-Δλ|. (7)
    If λ and λ' are given, the values of Δλ and (Δ)λ, λ' for any particular spectroradiometer are calculated by the equations (6) and (7). With the values 435.8mμ and 656.3mμ assigned to λ and λ' respectively, results of calculation are shown.
  • Jien NISHIWAKI
    1959 年 28 巻 5 号 p. 267-272
    発行日: 1959/05/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The visual grading of gloss on cylindrical models of equal specular reflectances differing systematically in color is studied in relation to the effect of color. The results show that visual gloss increases with darkness and saturation, that is, with the deepness of color. In order to express the effect, the following empirical formula is introduced: δ=2-log Y+10Δwhere Y is the luminous reflectance in percentage, Δ the chromaicity difference from neutral on the MacAdam's UCS diagram. The linear correlation of δ with visual grading is found 0.98 or more in correlation coefficient for the specimens used. The verification of the visual gloss being independent of hue is given in Part 2.
  • Jien NISHIWAKI
    1959 年 28 巻 5 号 p. 272-276
    発行日: 1959/05/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The visual grading of gloss on glossy colored cylindrical models of equal specular reflectances, most of which differ only in hue, is studied and the conclusion is drawn that there is no effect of hue on visual gloss under ordinary viewing conditions. The effect of texture is also considered and discussions are made on both color and texture effects.
  • 村田 和美
    1959 年 28 巻 5 号 p. 276-284
    発行日: 1959/05/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Response function of an optical system is represented completely by the amplitude and phase characteristics with respect to spacial frequencies. For measuring these characteristics simultaneously and quickly, a new method is suggested, in which a sinusoidal grating with varying constant, a mechanical cam for scanning with varying velocity and pulse circuit for phase detection are employed. Applying this method, a measuring apparatus for practical use has been designed and constructed, and its performance is described.
  • 水野 博之
    1959 年 28 巻 5 号 p. 284-288
    発行日: 1959/05/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Resistance distribution in oxide coated cathodes with various nickel sleeves are measured potentiometrically with the following results.
    (1) For passive sleeves, the resistance of barrier layer between (BaSr) O and Ni in reverse direction is significant at low temperatures in comparison with that of (BaSr) O, whereas at high temperatures, there is no such barrier layer. Accordingly, it seems reasonable to conclude that, at low temperatures, the conduction current through oxide coated cathode with passive sleeve is mainly determined by the resistance of the barrier layer, which is explained by the rectification theory proposed by Mott-Schottky, while, at high temperatures, the conduction is not impeded by the barrier layer, for almost all electrons emitted by granules have sufficient thermal energy to pass through the barrier.
    (2) For Si active sleeves, the resistance distribution in oxide coated cathode is much involved, it needs a model more complicated than that of Mott to explain the conduction mechanism.
  • 屋代 雄三
    1959 年 28 巻 5 号 p. 289-296
    発行日: 1959/05/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    When an aluminium test specimen is elongated in some ambient gas by a certain amount, the S. P. at its middle rises almost instantaneously to a certain value, then either continues to increase slowly to a saturation value (the saturation type), or at once falls off exponentially (the wedge type), or shows a change corresponding to the superposition of the above two types (the mixed type). If the specimen is subjected to successive small elongations, the first few are generally of the saturation type, the following one or two are of the mixed type, and all the succeeding elongations until fracture are of the wedge type. Not-annealed, not-etched specimens are such examples. Not-annealed, etched specimens as well as the annealed ones are of neither saturation type nor mixed type. If successive elongations of the wedge type occur with sufficient rapidity, overall variation of the S. P. (V) can be expressed in the form:
    V=A+Bl-(C/2)l2
    where l is overall elongation and A, B, and C are constants. The S. P. of the wedge type decreases linearly with log t, time t being taken from the beginning of the decrease. The wedge-type S. P. change is sensitive to the humidity and the nature (N2, O2) of the ambient gas while the saturation type S. P. is not. The S. P. change of aluminum by elongation is probably due to the fracture and separation of the oxide film from the substrate metal.
  • 木下 是雄, 夏目 光造
    1959 年 28 巻 5 号 p. 297-307
    発行日: 1959/05/10
    公開日: 2009/04/02
    ジャーナル フリー
    It was observed through a phase-contrast microscope that microcrystals are grown on the AOYAKE layer freshly prepared by acid corrosion, if the layer is left exposed to humid atmosphere and then desiccated. The growth of the crystals is remarkably accelerated if the specimen is repeatedly breathed on and desiccated. When the specimen is breathed on to form dews on the AOYAKE surface, the existing microcrystals are seen to act as condensation nuclei. Crystals as large as 10μ in side length can be grown in this way. These microcrystals are, undoubtedly, the chief constituents of the SHIROYAKE.
    As was reported before, AOYAKE layers prepared by acid corrosion on some kinds of glasses are cracked and come off when dried. The separation in flakes of the AOYAKE layer is described in detail.
    Spectral analysis of the microcrystals, the flaked AOYAKE layer, the corrosive as well as the mother glass was carried out, and the ratio in number of metallic atoms such as Na, Ba, Pb, etc. to silicon atoms (boron atoms, in the case of LaK 13) in each was estimated semi-quantitatively. From this experiment, the following conclusion was derived: Microcrystals are some salts of the metals, the atoms of which have diffused out from the AOYAKE layer. The AOYAKE layer is different from the mother glass in that it contains almost no sodium and less di and tri-valent metals. The wet AOYAKE layer is believed to be, so to speak, a hydrated gel-like silica film (H. G. S. F.) with a little amount of di- and tri-valent metallic ions left in it. When dried, it is converted into a gel-like silica film (G. S. F.) by dehydration.
    The existing data on the properties of H. G. S. F. and G. S. F. are summarized, and a tentative theory on the mechanism of the growth of H. G. S. F. is proposed. The crux lies in the explanation of the variation of refractive index in the normal direction to the surface, which, according to Doi and Tsunekane's experiment, is uniform throughout the AOYAKE layer (H. G. S. F.) and undergoes a sudden change at the interface between the layer and the mother glass.
  • 浅川 俊文, 池神 一司
    1959 年 28 巻 5 号 p. 308-309
    発行日: 1959/05/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Seita SAKUI, Tsutomu MORI
    1959 年 28 巻 5 号 p. 309-310
    発行日: 1959/05/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
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