応用物理
Online ISSN : 2188-2290
Print ISSN : 0369-8009
ISSN-L : 0369-8009
28 巻 , 9 号
選択された号の論文の14件中1~14を表示しています
  • 井上 邦利
    1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 493-497
    発行日: 1959/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Frost-work glass is made by hot air drying of glue film coated on lapped glass surface. By experiments it is shown that the cause of frosting is the permanent strain in surface layer of lapped glass and contractive force of coated glue film. Further it is shown that glue film strips the surface of lens leaving tiny spots. Effect of stress in lens surface on the shape of stripped spots is discussed.
  • 足立 巌
    1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 497-502
    発行日: 1959/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Discussion is made first on the precision of the Ronchi test when low frequency screen is used and geometrical treatment is permited, then on the precision of the Hartmann test.
    The precision of the two tests is briefly shown in a table. For measuring spherical aberration, the Hartmann test is superior to the Ronchi test, and for measuring astigmatism, the Ronchi test is superior to the other.
    It is reassured that the Ronchi test has the advantage in that the whole field can be surveyed at once, the separation of aberration is rather easy, and especially the quantitative measurement of astigmatism is conveniently made.
    An equation for obtaining astigmatism by using the result of Hartmann test is derived with which astigmatism of an objective lens of a large telescope was calculated finding out that the glass was of good quality.
  • 斎藤 弘義
    1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 502-508
    発行日: 1959/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recently, it was reported by H. Kubota that the diffraction image formed by polarizing microscope is quite different from the regular Airy disc. This is due to the rotation of the plane of polarization of light during the passage through the system and the diffraction image is four-leaf clover in the case of crossed Nicols. The diffraction image of a point source by an optical system is obtained as the Fourier transform of the pupil function, and it is treated in this paper the case when the angular variation of the amplitude of waves in the pupil (pupil function) is sinusoidal. When the pupil function is represented by ƒ (r, θ)=an sin nθ (for r_??_1), the amplitude of diffraction image is obtained as the Fourier transform as:
    F(ρ.φ)=an/2π_??__??_sinnθ·exp{iρrcos(θ-φ)}rdrds=an(i)nsinnφ_??_Jnr)rdr.
    This clearly shows that the amplitude of diffraction image varies also sinusoidally with the same period as that of the pupil function. Accordingly, the intensity distribution of image has 2n bright leaves and 2n dark lines radiating from the center.
    To make the experiment easier, the case when the amplitude varies as a rectangular wave form is treated instead of that of sinusoidal variation in the pupil. The pupil function is expanded as a Fourier series and the above discussion is applied to each terms. The diffraction patterns are shown theoretically as well as experimentally with the photographic illustration. The diffraction patterns in the case when the intensity varies in the same manner is obtained as the sum of the above mentioned diffraction pattern and the Airy disc. These patterns are also illustrated photographically.
  • 田中 俊一
    1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 508-514
    発行日: 1959/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    Using a polarization analyzing apparatus and the method previously reported by the authori1), reflection characteristics of several kinds of nonmetallic diffusing surfaces, most of which are white, are investigated. The results obtained are as follows:
    1. A fairly satisfactory conclusion is arrived at by assuming that the specular component, reflected from the mirror facets, remains polarized without changing a plane of polarization and that the diffuse component, repeatedly reflected from and refracted at the small inner particles, is completely depolarized.
    2. The diffuse component from coated paper, paint, tile and MgO having the reflectance of about 65_??_90% obeys Lambert's law, but that from uncoated paper and ground glass does not.
    3. The specular component from roughly ground glass follows Fresnel's formula but, because of the interference effect, that from finely ground glass, glossy paper, paint and tile does not.
    4. The distribution of the relative area of mirror facets of these surfaces having zero skewness resembles normal one although the kurtosis is somewhat larger, and the higher the gloss value or finer the roughness of the sample, the smaller the standard deviation.
    5. With wara-banshi, MgO and roughly ground glass, when the angle of incidence or reflection is above about 50°, the so-called masking phenomenon takes place.
    6. In some cases, the angle of reflectance maximum is not equal to that of specular reflection, which can be explained if the diffuse component, the relative area and the reflection coefficient of mirror facets are taken into considered.
  • 藤原 史郎
    1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 515-519
    発行日: 1959/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    In manufacturing machine tools, steam turbines, ships, etc., the alignment plays a very important part. The Fresnel conic mirror is an optical element for alignement apparatus, which can be made easily and has a high accuracy. It is made by vacuum deposition of thin films on to the plane parallel glass and consists of equally spaced concentric circular zones having a saw-tooth profile.
    The method of construction by vacuum evaporotion, the optical properties, and the application to aligment measurement of the Fresnel conic mirror are described. The experimental result shows that the accuracy of alignment is 0.01mm for distances up to 50m.
  • 久保 田広, 松居 吉哉
    1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 520-526
    発行日: 1959/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    While the theory of spectacle lenses has been confined so far to eliminate astigmatism for a given objective distance, in this paper, aberration of lenses is examined paying special attentions to the amount of residual aberration of the lenses corrected for a given objective distance. From §1. to §3., Seidel aberrations of thin lenses are examined by calculating them numerically for some examples. Loci of zero astigmatism and zero coma are given on a graph taking D (refractive power of lens) and D1 (refractive power of the first surface) as abscissa and ordinate. In §4., astigmatism of thick lenses is calculated by the use of electronic calculating machine for all the types of lenses and contours of equal astigmatism are shown on diagrams. In §5., change of aberration by the change of objective distance is examined and a diagram is shown to give the residual astigmatism of lenses which, once corrected for an objective distance (i. e. distance of clear vision), have for another objective distance (i. e. infinite distance). The data on focal depth of the eye from which we can estimate the allowance of aberrations for spectacle lenses are given in the last chapter.
  • 田幸 敏治
    1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 527-530
    発行日: 1959/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    As the spectrum of Hg198 is simple, familiar and high in intensity, it is a useful light source for interferometric measurements, for example, the precision measurement of length. Several Hg198 electrodeless discharge lamps with the isotope in varied amounts and argon or neon as carrier gas at varied pressures in them have been prepared for obtaining the best data to use in the making of the lamp and its operation. Specification of thus prepared lamps and of the discharge is given in a table and the half-value width of the line λ 5461 by each lamp in another table.
    A lamp with more than 1 mg of Hg198 and argon at less than 1 mmHg pressure gave so far the sharpest λ line when used at temperatures neighbouring 0°C. At around 20°C, 0.2_??_0.4mg of Hg198 and about 10mmHg pressure for argon afforded excellent results.
  • 大上 進吾
    1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 531-534
    発行日: 1959/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the field of optical image evaluation, the knowledge of spatial frequency character (response function) of the human eye is very important, for it is the human eye that evaluate the image which is formed by photographic lens or seen on photographic film. In designing a telescope and binocular optical system, data on response function of the eye can be effectively used.
    Response function of the eye is defined as B/ΔB. In this case B is the mean luminance of sine wave line pattern and ΔB is the amplitude of pattern at threshold contrast.
    Measurement is made at three luminance levels: 600rlx, 200rlx, 40rlx. Sine wave line pattern is made out of density type sound positive film.
    In this report, numerical values of spatial frequency are expressed in terms of line number per millimeter at the viewing distance of 250 millimeter. As the field luminance B is decreased, the gain of response function is reduced in high spatial frequency region, but the maximum value remains almost unchanged.
  • 国府田 隆夫, 神山 雅英
    1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 535-539
    発行日: 1959/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    When observed visually, the luminescence of self-activated CdS crystal appears to be restricted to striated rigions of the crystal. It is shown by microscopic observations that these rigions correspond to step-like rigions on the crystal surface, and this effect is ascribed to the internal reflection in the crystal. The emitting centers seem to be distributed rather uniformly in the crystal.
    Spectral measurements of the luminescence have been performed down to liquid air temperature. Emission bands are observed at 520mμ, 620mμ, _??_750mμ and 1020mμ for single crystals of pure CdS, CdS (Cl) and US (Ag), and their temperature dependency is investigated.
    A brief discussion on the origin of these emission centers is given.
  • 栗田 隆治, 蓮沼 宏
    1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 539-544
    発行日: 1959/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The growth of low refractive index layer (L. I. layer) on the surface of optical grass in SiO2-water or alkali solution is studied in detail.
    The amount of glass dissolved is measured by multiple beam interferometry. The thickness (d) and the refractive index (n) of the layer are measured by polarimetric method.
    In the cases of SK 16 and SSK 5, thick growth of L. I. layer is observed in SiO2-water solution.
    SF 3 and BK 7 are hardly affected by the presence of SiO2 in neutral solution. But in con-centrated SiO2-alkali solution the growth of L. I. layer is observed on the surface of BK 7 as well as SF 3.
    BK 7 is a durable glass against acids and alkalis. The largest thickness of the L. I. layer observed is about 600 A. A definite value of the refractive index of the surface layer on BK 7 is not obtained. In this case, the growth of L. I. layer is expressed by the fall of the refractive index of the layer together with the thickness.
  • 繩田 滋則
    1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 544
    発行日: 1959/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 村田 和美
    1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 545-546
    発行日: 1959/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 川原 正言, 栗田 隆治, 蓮沼 宏
    1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 547
    発行日: 1959/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1959 年 28 巻 9 号 p. 551
    発行日: 1959年
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
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