応用物理
Online ISSN : 2188-2290
Print ISSN : 0369-8009
ISSN-L : 0369-8009
29 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
  • 藤原 史郎
    1960 年 29 巻 3 号 p. 139-148
    発行日: 1960/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 小沢 七兵衛
    1960 年 29 巻 3 号 p. 149-155
    発行日: 1960/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Intensity measurement of scattered light with a light scattering photometer is influenced bby non-uniformity of the intensity of primary light beam. The inlet flux of the scattered light to a receiver is theoretically calculated and the result is compared with the case of uniform primary beam. From this, the correction factor of Brice's equation concerning the calibration of measuring instrument is given in ther form of (1+Ø) which is generally larger than 1.
    Experimentally, the intensity distribution of scattered light obtained by a scattered light photometer was measured by photographic method and the instrumental constant for various intensity distributions was determined by standard diffuser method.
    The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement. With normal instruments, the correction factor is found practically negligible.
  • 佐柳 和男
    1960 年 29 巻 3 号 p. 155-158
    発行日: 1960/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    Effect of the adjacency effect (or neighbourhood effect) on image reproduction in photographic, emulsion is analysed by using Fourier analysis.
    In the photographic image reproduction, micro-nonlinearity is removed by the linearization based on the characteristic curve, but micro-nonlinearity could not be removed by that method.
    In this paper, it is pointed out that the relation between original image and adjacent image part is solved by Fourier analysis. The adjacency effect is described by transfer function as follows:
    _??_(υ, omega;)={1+D(0, 0)-D(υ, omega;)},
    where D (υ, ω) is the Fourier transform of diffusion function d (x, y).
    This function has remarkable characteristics for the improvement of image quality, but the control of that effect for that purpose may be the coming problem for us.
    Mackie line and Eberhard effect could be explained clearly by using transfer function described in this paper.
  • 宮本 健郎
    1960 年 29 巻 3 号 p. 158-161
    発行日: 1960/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to deform the wave surface of anoptical system by an amount ø (u, v), Phase Fresnel Lens is inserted in the pupil of the optical system.
    By assuming 0_??_ø(u, v)<nλ, (u, v) region of the pupil is devided into m zones by Fresnel condition,
    (k-1)λ_??_ø(u, v)<kλ; kth zone (k=1, 2, ……m),
    where λ is the wavelength.
    As the Phase Fresnel Lens is so made that it shifts the wave surface by the amount ø (u, v)-(k-1)λ in each Fresnel zone, the amount of its shift in each zone is smaller than λ, but this is quite equivalent to the deformation of the wave surface by ø(u, v) because of Fresnel condition.
    Some properties of Phase Fresnel Lens are also discussed.
  • 福田 保, 杉山 芳雄, 岩田 稔
    1960 年 29 巻 3 号 p. 161-169
    発行日: 1960/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Description is given of apparatus for and principle of measuring the color of fluorescent materials illuminated by daylight covering the' ultraviolet and visible spectrum regions. The light from the source is dispersed by a grating monochromator and the monochromatic light illuminates a sample. The fluorescent or reflected light from the sample enters the second grating monochromator and is detected by a photomultiplier tube. (Method I). As a simple method, the first monochromator is removed and the sample is illuminated directly by the source, and both the fluorescent and reflected lights from the sample are dispersed by the monochromator and detected by the photomultiplier tube. (Method II). In both methods, a xenon short arc lamp is used as the light source.
    By using cloths whitened by a fluorescent whitener, the color rendering characteristics of the natural daylight in several phases and artificial white light are examined. It is found that the Middleton's data of the overcast sky over hypothetical urban area are correct and that the xenon lamp is the most suitable light source for the Method II although the ultraviolet intensity of the lamp is considerably high.
    Useful tables of reduction of spectrofluorometric data to tristimulus values are shown. Results of the measurements on colors of some daylight fluorescent materials are given.
  • 大上 進吾
    1960 年 29 巻 3 号 p. 169-175
    発行日: 1960/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    Of late, the power spectrum (spatial frequency spectrum) of grain pattern of photographic material is known to be valuable for evaluating its graininess and granularity. This paper presents the technique for measuring the power spectrum of grain pattern by scanning method and the experimental results obtained on uniformly exposed and developed black and white photographic materials. The experimental device consists of four distinct parts: the high speed scanning microphotometer, which scans a photographic material at the rate of one hundred millimeter a second with a small scanning aperture; the amplifier, which involves the high voltage source supplied to multiplier phototube; the frequency analyser, which analyses the wave form to its power spectrum with the narrow band pass filters; and the meter, which indicates the root mean square value of the current. The scanning aperture, on which the magnified image of grain pattern is projected by a microscope optical system, can be replaced with the use of a rotating aperture holder.
    As the spectrum obtained by scanning method is one dimensional power spectrum, it is necessary to transform this spectrum to the two dimensional power spectrum (Wiener spectrum) which is convenient to treat the granularity transfer problem. The relation of these functions is given by the following equation:
    ƒ(u)=∫-infin;F(u, v)|G(u, v)|2dv,
    where u and v are the spatial frequency on the plane of grain pattern, ƒ(u) is the one dimensional spectrum obtained by scanning method, F(u, v) is the two dimensional spectrum, and G(u, v) is the response function (contrast transmission) of scanning aperture. It is not simple to solve this integral equation. However, if F(u, v) and G(u, v) are isotropic and decrease monotonously together with the increasing of spatial frequency, we can get F(u, v) by using the following equation. In this case, F(u, v)|G(u, v)|2 can be expressed approximately by the sum of several error functions with different dispersions. The expressions is
    F(u, v)|G(u, v)|2=_??_ki/√2πpi exp(-u2+v2/2pi2).
    Then ƒ (u) is given by
    ƒ(u)=_??_kiexp(-u2/2pi2).
    The parameters (ki, pi) of error functions which are suitable for ƒ(u) obtained experimentarily, can be obtained by trial and error method. F(u, v) can be calculated by using these parameters and G(u, v). It is easy to give fairly good approximation by the sum of two or three error functions with proper parameters, for the level of ƒ(u) decreases quickly together with the increasing of spatial frequency u.
    The normalized autocorrelation functions of grain pattern can be obtained by Kretzmer's optical autocorrelator, but the level of origin of this function can not be observed. On the other hand, measurement of level of power spectrum F(u, v) which is the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function can be made with the device described in this paper.
    The two dimensional power spectra, obtained on Fuji Neopan SSS Film and Fuji Medical X-ray Film by using a nominal aperture equivalent to a circle of 1μ in diameter in the plane of the grain pattern, are presented in figures.
  • 夏目 光造
    1960 年 29 巻 3 号 p. 175-183
    発行日: 1960/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The first half of the paper deals with the measurement of the refractive indices of the AOYAKE layers artificially produced on test pieces of three kinds of optical glasses, SF 3, SK 5 and LaK 13; and the second half with the growth rates of the above mentioned AOYAKE layers.
    The AOYAKE layers were produced by attacking the test pieces with the following corrosives: for SF 3, 1N and 1/10N HNO3 at 40°, 50° and 60°C; for SK 5, 1/100N and 1/1000N HNO3 at 40°, 50° and 60°C; and for LaK 13, pure water at 40°, 50° and 60°C.
    The refractive index nƒ of the AOYAKE layer was measured by Abeles' method. Within the range of the conditions of corrosion studied, nƒ was found to be scarcely dependent on the concentration and temperature of the corrosive and the duration of treatment. The mean nƒ's. for SF 3, SK 5 and LaK 13 were 1.484, 1.477 and 1.500 respectively.
    It was noticed that nƒ decreases with the lapse of time if the test piece taken out from the corrosive is left exposed to the atmosphere, until it reaches a final value which probably is determined by the humidity of the atmosphere. This change in nf is remarkable in LaK 13. For this glass, it was also found that nƒ decreases if the AOYAKE layer is desiccated by slightly heating with the aid of an electric lamp or by evacuation, and again increases if it is left exposed to the atmosphere.
    Heat-treatment increases nƒ. In the case of SF 3 and SK 5, this change is accompanied by a, decrease in thickness of the AOYAKE layer.
    This is not the case with LaK 13.
    The growth rate, i.e, the time rate of increase of the thickness d, of the AOYAKE layer was studied by observing the interference colour. This gives nƒd, from which we can calculate d with the aid of the knowledge of nƒ. In the growth of the AOYAKE layer on SK 5 attacked by 1/100N HNO3 at 60°C, the d-t curve is linear, suggesting that the rate-determining process is the reaction at the interface between the layer and the mother glass. In all of the other cases studied, however, the curves show a general trend that the growth rate deacreases with time. These curves are accompanied by curious deflection points which seemingly indicate that the growth takes place in some step-wise manner. It is believed, however, that these deflections are deceptive, because they occur at those (optical) thicknesses which correspond to the sensitive colours. It would be more reasonable to look for the cause of the deflections in optics rather than in the mechanism of the growth of AOYAKE layers. If we neglect the deflections for this reason and smooth out the d-t curves, we find that d is roughly proportional to t0.4. This suggests that the leading rate-determining process would be the diffusion of ions through the layer (if the growth-rate is determined exclusively, by this factor, d is expected to be proportional to t0.5).
    From the smoothed d-t curves we can calculate the activation energies for the growth of the AOYAKE layers. The activation energies at d=100mμ are estimated at 18.9, 14.3 and 9.7 kcal/mol for SF 3, SK 5 and LaK 13 respectively.
  • 松居 吉哉
    1960 年 29 巻 3 号 p. 184-194
    発行日: 1960/03/10
    公開日: 2009/04/02
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the previous papers, new practical aberration coefficients are defined and various transformation formulas based on the general properties of coaxial optical system are considered. For actual calculations, however, formulas to compute the aberration coefficients by using constructional data of the optical system are needed. The object of this article is to develop computing formulas of the simplest and most reasonable form. For the present, the optical system is assumed to be composed merely of the spherical refractive surfaces.
    The relations between the intrinsic and the total aberration coefficients are already explained in the previous paper (I. General Theory, §11). Thus, the problem in hand is to derive the expressions of the intrinsic aberration coefficients. These expressions can be derived by starting from the special case in which the coefficients become zero and by applying the various transformation formulas (given in the previous paper) as was worked out by J. Focke (see reference 4). These can also be derived from the Focke's expressions by applying the two transformations as shown in the previous paper (I. General Theory, §4 and §5).
    In either case, the greatest difficulty is in arranging these expressions to develop computing formulas of the simplest form. One way to avoid confusion in the process is to express the intrinsic coefficients by independent variables and then develop the simplest forms by introducing the suitable dependent variables. Among the variables that have influence upon the intrinsic coefficients, three variables besides the constructional data are independent. Many sets of the three independent variables can be considered, but the most reasonable sets to express the intrinsic coefficients are the following two, viz.
    i) h, h, Q;
    ii) h, h, Q;
    here, h and h are the incident heights of paraxially traced object and pupil rays; Q and Q are the Abbe's invariants for these rays respectively. By using either set, the intrinsic coefficients can be expressed “uniquely”. Thus, two sets of “unique” expressions of the intrinsic aberration coefficients are derived. These expreseions may be regarded as the bases to develop the computing formulas.
  • 木下 幸次郎, 竜岡 静夫
    1960 年 29 巻 3 号 p. 195-203
    発行日: 1960/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    hen a lens is treated on the analogy of communication system, it is considered to be a transmission system in two-dimensional space. The information of an object is transmitted to our eyes with some modifications and restrictions through such systems as lens, film and photographic paper.
    In this paper, the property of the lens is investigated chiefly in two-dimensional spatial frequency domain in which the linear and non-linear distortions of a lens can be classified and defined. On account of diffraction phenomenon, the linear distortion always exists in usual lenses.
    For evaluating the frequency characteristics of a lens, a uniform and continuous sinusoidal wave form of one spatial frequency is used as the input, and the frequency spectrum of the output is examined. In this case, the values of the spectrum are determined by the values of the points, which are distributed in the interval determined by the frame of the image plane.
    A condition for the non-linear distortion in the spectral domain to disappear is introduced and an attempt is made to define the distortion factor of the lens and utilize it for the evaluation of the lens.
  • 久保田 広
    1960 年 29 巻 3 号 p. 204
    発行日: 1960/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Koreo KINOSITA, Tohru MATSUMOTO, Kohzo NATSUME, Mizuko YOSHIDA
    1960 年 29 巻 3 号 p. 205-208
    発行日: 1960/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
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