応用物理
Online ISSN : 2188-2290
Print ISSN : 0369-8009
ISSN-L : 0369-8009
30 巻 , 9 号
選択された号の論文の13件中1~13を表示しています
  • Susumu KITANI, Junichi TAKATA
    1961 年 30 巻 9 号 p. 635-640
    発行日: 1961/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Mechanism of spark discharge has been studied by many investigators. This paper deals with the metallic particles produced by spark discharge between wire electrodes of various metals. Distribution of particle size in two cases of positively and negatively charged particles are determined by measuring the particle mobility. Some discussion is made on the mechanism of spark discharge and of recombination of charged particles which become neutral.
  • 伊吹 順章, 小宮 啓義
    1961 年 30 巻 9 号 p. 640-647
    発行日: 1961/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Bulk and surface diffusion of metal into CdS single crystal is interesting as well as significant because of the transparency of the crystal allowing the precipitation and behavior of the metal around dislocations in the crystal to be directly observed. Bulk diffusion coefficient of Cu into CdS single crystal and activation energy of diffusion measured by optical absorption method, and abnormal diffusion of Cu on the surface of CdS single crystal are reported. Diffusion coefficient of Cu measured is 8.16×10-5cm2/sec at temperature 500°C and activation energy is 1.78×104 cal. deg/g mole. The abnormal surface diffusion seems to be caused either by pipe diffusion or by precipitation of saturating Cu around dislocations when the temperature drops.
  • 金原 粲
    1961 年 30 巻 9 号 p. 647-653
    発行日: 1961/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    Effect of annealing on the properties of thin gold films deposited in vacuo has been studied by X-ray diffraction method with a Norelco X-ray spectrometer. Within a temperature range of 20_??_400°C, all physical properties are found to vary smoothly and monotonously by annealing. No special temperature corresponding to recrystallization temperature in bulk gold is found. As the annealing temperature is raised, the internal stress of film calculated from the strain in crystallites in the film decreases, the diffraction intensity increases, and the line breadth is reduced.
    From these results and those obtained in the preceding papers, the following conclusions are derived for the structure of “thin gold films deposited in vacuo (10-5 mmHg) on glass substrates at room temperatures”, and for the origin of the internal stress in such films.
    1. The film consists of two parts, crystalline and amorphous. The mean size of crystallites is 100_??_500Å, and in most crystallites, (111) planes are parallel to the substrate. When the film is very thin, the film is of the so-called “island” structure.
    2. Very small crystallites are supposed to be in liquid state.
    3. The structure of the film is influenced by residual gases present in the evaporation chamber.
    4. If the film is below 1000Å in thickness, the thinner the film, the smaller the mean crystallite size is.
    5. The mean crystallite size reaches its maximum at a film thickness of about 1000Å. In this region, the rate of crystal growth due to annealing is minimum. Such a film shall be named the “fundamental layer”.
  • 塘 正夫
    1961 年 30 巻 9 号 p. 653-662
    発行日: 1961/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    A study is made on the compensating resistances of compensator in, hydrophone group system. passive sonar. Electric outputs of the hydrophones, the outputs being of the same voltage but can be of different phase angles according to how every hydrophone is oriented in the water, are applied to the compensator which consists of a retardation network, a group of compensating resistances and a switch of special mechanism. These outputs are transmitted to proper terminals of the retardation network through the compensating resistances in succession by rotation. of the switch, and when the direction of the, compensator axis coinsides with the direction of the propagation of underwater sound waves, these outputs will become of the same phase and superpose. In order to obtain such condition, which gives maximum transmission efficiency, the resistances should be of the values with suitable differences among them. This can be decided by putting ηkn1 where, ηk, ηn and η1 are, the transmission efficiencies of the compensator between its kth, nth and 1st terminals and the, output terminal of the retardation network.
  • 山本 美喜雄
    1961 年 30 巻 9 号 p. 663-671
    発行日: 1961/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    In a case of an infinitely long cylindrical rod placed in an infinitely long cylindrical vacuum furnace of uniform temperature gradient, the temperature distribution in the rod near its solid-liquid interface where the crystalization is in progress is dealt with as a function of the furnace temperature gradient and onward velocity of the interface along the rod, or in other words, the velocity of crystal growth, when the rod is left at rest or moved lengthwise at a slow and uniform rate. Calculations are made on the assumption that the interface is planar and that the temperature in lateral cross-section of the rod is uniform, hence, no convection motion occurs in liquid state. The following notations are used in the calculations: Gƒ (>0), furnace temperature gradient; G, rod temperature gradient; Ri, onward velocity of the solid-liquid interface along the rod; R, velocity at which the rod is moved lengthwise; Tƒ, temperature of the furnace; T, temperature of rod; A, its .cross-sectional area; S, its circumference; ρ, density of rod material; c, its specific heat; k, its thermal conductivity; σ, its emissivity; L, its latent heat of solidification; t, time. Suffixes s and l signify solid and liquid states, respectively; the rod axis is taken as x coordinate axis with the origin at the solid-liquid interface, solid side being positive, liquid side negative.
    An important relation Ri=-R is obtained showing that the onward velocity of the interface by crystalization is the same in magnitude as the moving velocity of the rod. For small Gƒ and |Ri|,
    Tƒ0=TE-{(BGƒ+DRi)/2TE3/2}, Gl0=Gƒ-Kl1/2(BGƒ+DRi), Gs0=Gƒ+KS1/2(BGƒ+DRi), and Tl=Tƒ+{(BGƒ+DRi)/2TE3/2} exp [-(Ri/2αl)-2Kl1/2TE3/2{1-(3/8)(BGƒ+DRi)/TE3/2}]x, Ts=Tƒ+{(BGƒ+DRi)/2TE3/2}exp [-(Ri(2αs)+2Ks1/2TE3/2{1-(3/8)(BGƒ+DRi)]/TE3/2}x, where K=(S/A)(σ/k), α=kc, B=(klAl-ksAS)/{(SlAlklσl)1/2+(SsAsksρs)1/2} and DsAs
  • 米満 博夫
    1961 年 30 巻 9 号 p. 672-679
    発行日: 1961/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The negative resistance effect associated with electrical breakdown of Ge in the neighbourhood of liquid helium temperature is studied by d.c. constant current supplying method and pulse sweep technique.
    It is observed that there are two types of the negative resistance. The one is a slowly varying, type observed by d.c. method in uncompensated p-type Ge. This type disappears in the pulse sweep method, hence, this type seems to be caused by thermal variation of resistance as in the case of thermistors. The other type is as follows: in Ga or In-doped and Sb-compensated Ge, transient type negative resistance appears above the critical field strengh EC which depends on the compen-sation rate and majority impurity concentration. This jump behaviour occurring on V-I curve may be called bistable cryosar characteristic.
    In Ge containing 2.5×2015 atoms/cc of In as majority impurity, the critical field EC becomes higher in responce to the increase in the compensation rate and exhibits temperature dependence with a noticeable feature.
  • 中田 一郎
    1961 年 30 巻 9 号 p. 679-682
    発行日: 1961/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Growth of stilbene single crystal from melt by Bridgman method is described; scintillation behavior of the grown crystal for various high energy radiations is studied.
    Temperature of the furnace around the glass tube in which the crystal is grown is maintained by control within ±0.1°C of fluctuation and the rate of growth is set at 4cm/day. The glass tube has a capillary at its bottom and a single crystal of 2.5 cm in both diameter and height is obtained in the tube. As the melting temperature is rather low, cracking by thermal contraction is less marked in comparison with the case of anthracene. The crystal obtained is colorless and very transparent.
    Fluorescence efficiency for high energy radiation is 67% of that of anthracene. Spectral resolu tion for the peak by recoil electrons from Csla7 is 15%. When Sr90 is used, spectrum by β3-rays from Sr90 is shadowed by spectrum by β-rays from Y90 and therefore is not observed.
    In conclusion, despite excellent transparency, stilbene is inferior to anthracene in many respects as regards scintillation behavior.
  • 阿部 敏雄, 大橋 泰三
    1961 年 30 巻 9 号 p. 683-688
    発行日: 1961/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    Three kinds of smooth pits not corresponding to edge dislocation on Ge (111) surface etched by CP4 solution were found by Muraoka2). Round smooth pits are observed most usually among such pits. Shape of these pits and appearance of etched surface of samples with high density of these pits resemble those discovered by Tweet.
    However, these pits are confirmed to differ from those corresponding to vacancy aggregate. Investigation is made to trace the origin of these pits. The pits are found similar to those that appear on Ge single crystals doped with silicon in oxidizing atmosphere. From the study on extinction phenomena of samples in infrared region, turbidity at λ=2.5μ and absorption coefficient at λ=9μ are found proportional to.1.5th power of round smooth pit density (Nc). Result of analysis on the wave length dependency of turbidity by the use of Mie's theory makes us infer that the pits are caused by silica particles included in Ge single crystal, which have average diameter of _??_1μ and the bulk density of _??_9×(Nc)1.5.
  • 井上 実
    1961 年 30 巻 9 号 p. 688-699
    発行日: 1961/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    In planning Kammon Strait vehicular tunnel, detection of poisonous carbon monooxide gas became a matter of urgency. After some preliminary fundamental experiments, the combustion method reported by the Bureau of Mines of U.S.A. was adopted for the detection. This method is to measure the amount of heat developed by low temperature catalytic reaction, By crystallographical analysis, electron microscopical observation and activity test, the best suited one out of a few tens of catalyzers of MnO2 base was chosen and its preparation process was established. For the use of this catalyzer, the temperature is to be 130°C, dew point of sample air to be -6°C and amount of sample air to be 22.5 l/min. Explanations are given how these figures were experimentally obtained and how the detector was devised by way of trial. Activated charcoal was found effective in removing from the sample air the trace of sulphur compounds that were found to impede the catalytic action.
    As for the tunnel ventilation, volume of exhaust gas from cars was estimated from the volume of traffic, and servo-control system for the air interchange was found the best way of maintaining the CO content below its allowable limit.
    Series of experimental studies mentioned above made the automatic control of the tunnel ventilation a success.
  • 加藤 弘, 永島 健次郎, 蓮沼 宏
    1961 年 30 巻 9 号 p. 700-704
    発行日: 1961/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Internal stress of thin Ag films evaporated upon Cu-strips is measured as a function of film thickness. The bending of strips is measured directly in vacuum after or during evaporation by an electrical devise incorporating a condenser pick up. Mean tensile stress and stress distribution in Ag films are calculated from the bending curves. The results are as follows:
    (1) Stress is not observed in films thinner than 300Å.
    (2) Largest stress is observed within the thickness 500-1000Å from substrate, the amount of stress being 1.5 109 dyn/cm2
    (3) Stress is constant (0.7-0.8×10 dyn;/cm2) in the outer layer.
  • 難波 正治
    1961 年 30 巻 9 号 p. 705-707
    発行日: 1961/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 明石 雅夫
    1961 年 30 巻 9 号 p. 708-709
    発行日: 1961/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 毛利 明博
    1961 年 30 巻 9 号 p. 709-710
    発行日: 1961/09/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
feedback
Top