応用物理
Online ISSN : 2188-2290
Print ISSN : 0369-8009
ISSN-L : 0369-8009
31 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の13件中1~13を表示しています
  • 片山 庸郎
    1962 年 31 巻 3 号 p. 169-177
    発行日: 1962/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Using the theory of concave grating mounting published previously by Miyake in which a grating is rotated about a suitable axis to vary the wavelength, the author performs numerical calculations for the mounting in which property of imagery is almost of the same degree as that given by Seya mounting. In the solution which gives the minimum radius value of rotation, the angle subtended between incident and emergent rays is about 70° and this is near to the result obtained by Seya. There are other solutions which locate the center of rotation at infinity and therefore permit the rotation of grating to be replaced by a linear translation. Conditions for the linear translation to be used and properties of the imaging given by it are discussed. For these cases numerical calculations are performed. Moreover performance of the linear motion mounting is tested in visible region by taking photographs of spectral lines. (The content of this work will be published in English journal “Science of Light (Tokyo)” containing more details.)
  • 大上 進吾
    1962 年 31 巻 3 号 p. 178-186
    発行日: 1962/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the provious paper (Part 1), a study on the relation of sharpness to the characteristic curve of photographic materials was reported. This paper presents the relation between psychological sharpness and sine wave response function of optical transfer system and gives the practical evaluation of sharpness.
    A simple exposing apparatus has been constructed, and various pictures (portrait, edge, texture, and sight) with different sharpness have been taken.
    Eight sorts of evaluation fanction derived from sine wave response function of image R(u, v), response function of the eye r(u, v), and contrast of image C are given. The numerical values of evaluation functions of those pictures are calculated and compared with psychological sharpness of respective pictures. The relations between evaluation functions and sharpness are shown in figures.
    The results of this study indicate that, among these evaluation functions, the function S4=∫∫_??_{R(u, vr(u, v)}2dudv agees best with the psychological sharpness.
  • 朝倉 利光
    1962 年 31 巻 3 号 p. 186-191
    発行日: 1962/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    A theory of image formation with the use of matrices was proposed by Gabor and Gamo; it has been developed mainly by Gamo.
    Four problems are presented here concerning the matrix theory of image formation. All the problems are worked out for one-dimensional system based upon Gamo's proposed matrix theory. They can however be extended directly to two-dimensional cases.
    The first problem is to give the physical meaning of diagonalization of the intensity matrix with the help of the entropy loss concept in a linear filter defined in information theory. The second problem is to show the relation between the coherence properties and the proposed entropy concept. The third problem is to generalize the matrix theory of image formation in the field of an arbitrary frequency range with the use of the mutual coherence function defined by Wolf. The last problem is to define and to interpret the degree of coherence in this field.
  • 諸隈 肇
    1962 年 31 巻 3 号 p. 192-200
    発行日: 1962/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Theoretical investigation is made on electronic fringe counting interference comparator for the purpose of routine measurement of length. (1) A lens and mirror system is introduced as the movable reflector system of the interferometer. This catadioptric system plays the same role as that of a corner cube reflector system when a concave mirror is situated at the focal point of a convex lens. (2) Effects of temperature and atmospheric pressure can be automatically corrected if suitable Fabry-Perot etalons are assembled tandem to the interferometer and the spacer material of the etalons has the same thermal expansion coefficient as that of the part to be measured. Equal inclination fringes are different from those formed with an ordinary interferometer. (3) Effects are calculated on the visibility of fringes due to optical arrangement of reflector systems and spectral distribution of the light which passed through the etalon.
  • 諸隈 肇
    1962 年 31 巻 3 号 p. 201-207
    発行日: 1962/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    An interference comparator has been constructed on the basis of theoretical investigation, some results of the investigation were already described in the first part of this paper and the rest are here presented.
    A pair of interference fringes, having uniform brightness and phase difference of π/2 rad. is formed in the same field of view by means of a quarter wave lengh prism analogous to a Fresnel. rhomb and they are separated by a Wollaston prism. The direction in which the measuring head moves can be electronically detected from the phase relation between them. Measurement can be performed with in the accuracy of 0.03μ with this instrument.
  • Hiroshi TAKASAKI
    1962 年 31 巻 3 号 p. 208-216
    発行日: 1962/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Measuring methods for photoelectric polarimetry with ADP Kerr cell are systematized and discussed from a general point of view. These methods are compared with other methods in which mechanical means and Faraday cell are used. Choice of the method most appropriate for a given condition of assigned work is discussed.
  • Shun-ichi TANAKA, Noriyuki NOGUCHI, Makoto WATANABE, Tsunehiko TAKAHAS ...
    1962 年 31 巻 3 号 p. 216-221
    発行日: 1962/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    Reflection characteristics of various rough surfaces are measured at large specular angles with a goniophotometer. A square-wave chart illuminated by a source is placed at the focal plane of the collimator lens. The chart is scanned and photocurrent generated in a photomultiplier tube placed behind a slit of receiver system is recorded. Relation between spatial frequency and the contrast of record is investigated and the k value of Jentzsch's equation,
    2hcosθc=λ/k,
    is determined, where h is the roughness of the sample, λ the wavelength of light, θc the critical angle of the so-called Sheen given as the angle at which the value of contrast becomes zero. The k value of ground glass is found independent of the wavelength of light or the roughness of the sample; it is 2_??_3 when h is taken as the central line average roughness.
  • Toshimitsu ASAKURA, Katsura FUKUI
    1962 年 31 巻 3 号 p. 221-232
    発行日: 1962/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The location and character of the best focus on axis by an optical system with a nominal amount of primary spherical aberration is discussed from the wave-optical and information theoretical points of view.
    The axial intensity distribution (the Strehl definition along the axis) is exactly examined by using the Zernike polynomials. The results supplement the wave-optical approach of Kuwabara about the location of best focus with primary spherical aberration.
    The best focus is discussed in terms of the maximum value of four criteria, i.e., Relative Structural Content, Correlation Quality and Image Fidelity defined by Linfoot, and Sharpness suggested by O'Neill. Each criterion plays a different role depending upon the structure of the object. These factors are calculated by Simpson's method from the response functions given by Parrent for the various focal setting between marginal and paraxial foci and for different amounts of aberration.
    On the assumption of object with a flat spectrum the computations indicate that for very small aberration the best focus lies midway between the marginal and paraxial foci irrespective of the quality criteria. When the aberration increases, the best focus deviates slightly from the mid-point, the deviation depending upon the particular criterion. The difference of the amounts of quality factors at the central and maximum planes is negligibly small so that the image intensity distribution along the axis could not indicate this deviation of the best focus from the central plane.
  • Kakuji YAMAMOTO
    1962 年 31 巻 3 号 p. 233-236
    発行日: 1962/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The analytical method of determining the shape of lens for the case when the object plane is placed at a specified position is already known. To a thin lens of a given power with a stop placed behind it, the above analytical method is applied to remove astigmatism in the Seidel region for a general case of any magnitude of magnification and of the object plane being at any distance from the lens. A quadratic equation concerning the refractive power of the first surface and the power of the lens was obtained. The possibility of finding the required shape or shape. of the lens rests on the solution of this equation.
  • 沢路 雅夫
    1962 年 31 巻 3 号 p. 237-240
    発行日: 1962/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 山口 勝也
    1962 年 31 巻 3 号 p. 240-241
    発行日: 1962/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 鶴田 匡夫
    1962 年 31 巻 3 号 p. 241-243
    発行日: 1962/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Toshimitsu ASAKURA
    1962 年 31 巻 3 号 p. 243-244
    発行日: 1962/03/10
    公開日: 2009/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
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