In the report of “Image Converter Tube for High Speed Camera”, in Journal of Applied Physics, Japan, Vol. 29, No.8, 1960, it was reported that the rotating parallel equi-potential plane electric field by multi-phase sinusoidal wave voltages was excellent for circular deflecting system of electron images to increase the frame number of high speed camera using image converter tube. This deflecting system is constructed with twelve plane electrodes arranged cylindrically, and it is called the multi-electrodes deflecting system. To deflect the electron images on the screen without distortion, a parallel equi-potential electric field such as the field between two parallel plane electrodes is desired. In a multi-electrodes type deflecting field, the equi-potential surfaces of the center portion are parallel, but near the electrodes they are disturbed. In this report, the potential equation of this field is theoretically derived from Laplace's equa-tion and the potential distribution of this field is numerically calculated. On the other hand, the potential distribution is measured in an electrolytic trough on an electrode model. The results confirm that the various assumptions used for the theoretical calculation are correct, and that the calculated data are more accurate than the observed which are liable to be affected by the method of measurement and measuring apparatus. It is explained that the twelve electrode deflecting system using multi-phase sinusoidal wave voltages is effective for circular deflection of electron images on fluorescent screen and the field disturbance near the electrodes is not important for the deflection.
This paper aims to find the relation between changes of thermoelectromotive force and magnetic properties of Fe-Ni alloys, which are very sensitive to heat treatments of superlattice formation. Samples used are of rod shape of 24% and 18.5% Fe-Ni alloys, 1.0 mmin diameter and 30cm in length. The heat treatments of superlattice formation have been carried out under the following three conditions: a) without magnetic field, b) with longitudinal magnetic field (20 Oe) and c) with circular magnetic field (10 Oe on surface). The experimental results can be summarized as follows: 1) Thermoelectromotive force of this alloy against copper decreases with the superlattice for-mation under the three conditions. In the case of c), it increases in early stage of superlattice formation following the continuous decrease in latter stages. 2) The curves of thermoelectromotive force against the intensity of magnetization consist of two parts in all specimens with different degrees of lattice order prepared under the three conditions. One part is the range of constant value in the early stage following that of continuous decrease in absolute value. The above results lead us to conclude that the changes of thermoelectromotive force in these alloys depend on the changes of distribution of magnetic domains which are oriented in perpen-dicular directions to the temperature gradients and electric current in specimens.
For the terms expressing the birefringence of polymers caused by stress, which are considered only vaguely employed and no properly established terms we seem to have, the following definitions are proposed. The birefringence caused by stress be generically termed the “photo-elasto-plastic effect” whichh is classified into the “photo-elastic effect” for the birefringence observed at the moment of stressing and the “photo-plastic effect” for the birefringence observed under continued stress. Physically, however, the latter should better be termed the “retarded photo-elastic effect”, for it is of retarded elasticity. From experimentally obtained result, the following four types specified by positive or negative sign are given to the photo-elasto-plastic effect.
Ten kinds of samples of sintered Ni(1-δ)LiδO, δ of which is varied from 0.1 to 1.0, are prepared, and examination is made to ascertain how δ influences their physical properties. Sintered Ni(1-δ)LiδO has a large number of excess oxygen atoms which increase with increasing lithium concentration. By measurement of density and analysis of crystal structure, some oxygen atoms are found occupying the lattice interstices, and resistance measurement made on the samples, which were heated to 300°C then cooled, shows that the oxygen atoms are in a meta-stable state, Result of calculation from the lattice constants and measured values of density, shows that the oxygen atoms involved in the lattices and those occupy the lattice interstices are nearly the same in number. Both the electrical resistivity and activation energy decrease with lithium concentration. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant on the lithium concentration is similar to that of ordinary sintered dielectrics. Four absorption bands are observed: two bands with absorption edge at 0.46μ and 0.72μ, and two broad bands of 1.1_??_12μ and 17_??_28μ in the far-infrared region. Absorption in all these bands becomes stronger as the lithium concentration increases.
To obtain optimum sintering conditions for preparing uniform and stable thermistors of nickel and cobalt oxides, the effect of temperature on the crystal structure is examined on mixtures of powdered nickel and cobalt oxides by high temperature X-ray diffraction and differential thermoanalysis. From the physical properties observed on samples which were prepared by repeating a few times of pre-sintering at 1000°C for one hour then by being left to cool in furnace before the final sintering at 1350°C for one hour and also on those which were prepared by annealing at 700°C for one hour after sintered, the following conclusions are made: as the pre-sintering is repeated, the crystal grains become smaller, their distribution tends to become uniform and electrical resistivity becomes steadier; the annealing, if carried out properly, stabilizes the electrical characteristics.
By means of direct shear test, the angle of internal friction for eight kinds of powdered food-skimmed milk powder, whole milk powder, lactose powder, butter milk powder, flour, starch and ice cream mix powder-was determined. The coefficients of internal friction of these kinds of powdered food are found to lie in the range of 0, 23 to 0.70. Especially, the whole milk powder and ice cream mix powder which contain a large amount of fat possess the cohesive force of about 40 g/cm2. The stress under shearing increases in pulsatile steps with increasing shearing displacement and saturates gradually. Vertical strain increases linearly with the logarithmic increase of shearing strain. When the normal stress increases over 0.3 kg./cm2., however, the slope of the straight line suddenly rises up and the variation of the slope tells clearly the formation of the slip layer including the shearing plane. The vertical height of packed powder generally decreases with the increase of shearing displacement but the powder composed of cubical particles like sugar expands its volume during shearing. This is a kind of dilatancy. The internal friction of the powder is remarkably affected by the shape and size of shear box and by the density of powder that filled the shear box. By photographic observation of flow pattern, an irregular flow is found along the inner edge of shear box and on the shearing plane during the shearing.
A considerable amount of negative charge is seen produced on the surface of a silicone coated glass rod in repelling water. Experiment is made on the produced charge by repeating the process of immersing the rod in water, withdrawing it from water and measuring the amount of surface charge. From the analysis made on the behavior of the surface charge, the electrical state of the surface is surmised. One of the results that attracts interest is that when a substance of high water-repellent surface is left undisturbed in still water for some time, unusual increase of surface charge is observed when it is withdrawn out of water This is reasoned that, during the immersion, the air that was sucked in by the process of immersion and remained on the specimen surface and the gas molecules that were possively produced by the interaction between water and the specimen when immersed give rise to sizable bubbles, some of which escape out into the atmosphere, thus increasing the area of direct contact between the surface and water.
Emission characteristics of mercury lamps were measured in the spectral range from 50 to 800μ with a far infrared spectrometer. The lamps measured are those of quartz envelope with presumed mercury vapor pressure of several atmospheric pressures. The ratio of the intensity of radiation from the mercury vapor to that from the tube walls is determined by measuring the intensity of radiation after abrupt switching-off of the discharge current. In the spectral range around 50μ, most of the radiation is emitted from the heated tube walls while, above 300μ, more than 80 percent of the radiation comes from the mercury vapor. Relative intensity of the radiation was measured for an input power of 25_??_220 W/cm. It is found that, above 300μ and above a certain input power, further increase of the power does not apprecially cause the radiation intensity to increase. The radial intensity distribution was measured in the visible and far infrared regions. The distribution for the far infrared region is considerably broader than that in the visible region. Observed and calculated results in its general trend if self-absorption in the plasma of high pressure vapor is assumed.
A method has been devised for measuring the concentrations of fibrous substance and solutes in solutions simply continuously and accurately even for dilute concentration. The principle of the device rests on measuring electrically on a wire resistance strain gauge the strain of the shaft of a propeller which is made to revolve in the solution.
An approximate formula is derived for Bethe-Bloch equation for the energy loss of electrons.The formula is useful for electrons with energies smaller than 300 KeV and gives an approximate range-energy formula of the type R=aEn. This formula is compared with the empirical range-energy formulas obtained by many authors. Also, some simple approximate formulas are obtained for the relation of “rate of energy loss-path length” and for that of “energy-path length”.
A germanium film prepared by vacuum evaporation and deposited at an oblique angle of incidence on a glass substrate exhibits a very large photovoltaic effect. The magnitude of photovoltage reaches as high as 330V for a film of 0.6 mm long (5, 500V/cm) under appropriate condition. For this effect to appear, it is necessary that the evaporation and deposition of germanium is made obliquely and that oxygen is adsorbed on the germanium film thus formed. When the deposition is made obliquely, fine crystallites grow in the direction of the evaporator from the numerous crystal nuclei formed on the substrate in the beginning. Thus, a thin film is composed in which fine crystallites arrange themselves with a definite orientation. When the film is illuminated by light, minute photovoltage is generated in every one of the crystallites and the sum of these voltages along the length of film becomes a high voltage between both ends of the film.
The shapes of single thin lenses designed by repeated ray-tracing differ remarkably sometimes from those calculated by the formula given in Part 1. Therefore, by taking into account of the thickness of the lens, which seems to be the main reason of this discepancy, an analytical study is made to render single thick lenses anastigmatic in the Seidel region by the application of Zinken-Sommer's condition. When the object plane is placed at infinity or at the anterior focal plane of the lens, the anas-tigmatic condition turns into equations of the fifth degree of refractive power of the first surface. But it is of the seventh degree when the magnification of the image is taken as a parameter, and of the sixth degree when the distance of the object plane is taken as a parameter. The possibility of finding the required shape or shapes of the lens rests on the solution of these equations,