To examine the contribution of granurality of film, structure of photographic paper surface and of mesh to the image transmission, the concept of carrier is introduced into the spatial fre-quency spectrum space. According to the signal carrying ability, the carriers are classified into five canonical forms in spatial frequency domain by the aid of the group theory, and spatial fre-quency spectra of objects and image signals are investigated. It becomes clear that the spectral plane can be utilized most effectively by the application of Hartley's law of the communication engineering to a two dimentional space when the anisotropy of spatial frequency distribution of the objects and the type of the image transmission carriers are considered. This proves that the silk-surface of photographic paper has a band-limiting characteristic and that the customary orien-tation of meshes in printing and of target mesh of image orthicon is correct. Furthermore, it is made clear that the use of spatial anisotropic optical filters improves the signal to noise ratio of above 6 db of TV or photographic images and also that, if the skew-scanning method is used, the band compression of TV signals by about 30% will become possible.
Photogalvanic effect is studied by using ion-exchange membranes. Cation-and anion-exchange membranes with electro-chemical characteristics shown in a Table 2 are prepared and treated with thionine and ascorbic acid, respectively. These membranes are put one upon the other and illumi-nated from the side of the cation-exchange membrane with a collimated beam of white light from a 150-watt Xenon arc lamp. The initial photo-induced potential is positive, about 30 mV., which becomes gradually decreased by repeating the illumination with eventual reversal of the sign of potential and bleaching of the thionine dye. The reversed potential is detected repeatedly by further illumination. The system of thionine and ascorbic acid treated ion-exchange membranes rectifies the electric current.
Wolf unified the separate theories of coherency and partial polarization into one theory by using elementary properties of stationary stochastic processes. Although he introduced the coher-ency matrix and, later on, Roman and he used the correlation tensors as a generalization of the coherence function, no systematic study of their properties in terms of matrix-forms was made. In this paper fundamental properties of the coherence function in frequency domain are introduced and discussed. A generalization of the coherency matrix using the correlation tensors is made for a non-plane wave. As a special case the generalized coherency matrix is then reduced in the case of a plane wave. Thus, generalized and extended coherency matrices in time domain are trans-ferred into frequency domain by using Fourier transform techniques, where they are directly related to the extended and usual Stokes parameters and, in the monochromatic case, to Jones' and Muel-ler's matrices. Discussion is conducted for several properties of these coherency matrices.