The method of qualitative analysis by means of infrared absorption spectroscopy which is now being adopted widely in the world is such that the technicians are required to have not only much knowledge but also a good deal of experience in this field. The author claims that a more ad-vanced method of infrared analysis is to require a technician nothing but to carry out a given analytical procedures correctly in order to lead him to a correct result automatically. To establish such an ideal situation of the analysis, it will be essential to accomplish a reasonable system of arrangement and retrieval of the enormous accumulated spectroscopic data. In this paper, the infra-red data compilations now available are introduced and the sorting method of each compilation is explained. Further a possibility of retrieval using a magnetic tape is discussed and the difficulties which are expected to arise in connection with the realisation of this method are criticized.
The principle of polarization interference microscope by FRANCON-YAMAMOTO based on the differential method is described. In such an interference microscope, the source size compensation is made in a plane close to the object (objective compensation), not in the pupil plane, by making use of an afocal systemwith Savart plates on its two sides. The conditions to realize the objective compensation being deduced from general viewpoint, the relative tolerance of lateral shears by the two Savart plates and of focal lengths of two partial systemsof the afocal system is studied. Non-uniformity of coherence in the image field due to astigmatism of Savart plates is discussed, for it sets a limit to usable field size of the objective-compensated interferometer. The permissible aberrations are deduced by stipulating a criterion that the yielded degradation of coherence shall not exceed that due to diffraction in perfect system. In the end, contrast transfer functions for small variations of object amplitude and object phase in an aberrant, differential interference microscope with partially coherent illumination are given.
The elements which determine the reliability and stability of a single channel pulse height analyzer are influenced by the change of room temperature when all the circuits are made up of the semiconductors. For the temperature characteristic of semiconductor elements, it is important to discuss the static characteristic that determines the operation point of circuit. The single channel pulse height analyzer is composed of three clippers of the same type and another type clipper. If the D. C. level of two kinds of input signals for the clip points of all the clippers changes similarly by the room temperature, the output signals at the clip points do not change. In this study, the stability within 0.02%/°C on base line and channel width has been confirmed.
Polycrystalline mixed crystals of LaNixCo1-xO3 are prepared over the whole range of x. X-ray observation revealed that all the samples prepared at 1000°C possess the same perovskite lattice as that of LaCoO3. Among these perovskite type crystals, those of 0_??_x<0.5 are stable up to 1500°C and that of x=0.5 is stable up to 1300°C. Resistivity ρ and thermoelectric power are measured as functions of temperature (77°_??_500°K) on samples of 0_??_x_??_0.5 sintered at 1300°C. At 300°K, Hall voltage is not found for samples of x=0.4 and 0.5. Log(ρ/T) vs. 1/T is a kinked straight line (for x_??_0.2) or simple straight line (for x>0.2) and values of both ρ and activation energy decrease appreciably with increasing x. From these properties, a conclusion is drawn that the current in the samples is carried by hopping diffusion of localized electrons and/or holes between Co3+ and Co4+ or between Ni2+ and Ni3+.
Laser performance of Nd3+ glass deteriorates by repeatingthe operation, for instance, the laser threshold increases and the output energydecreases. To study the mechanism of the deterioration, the optical absorption, the intensity of fluorescence at about 1.06μ and the life time of fluorescence of Nd3+ glass are measured before and after the deterioration. The deterioration is found to be due to solarization of the base glass caused byultraviolet radiation emitted from Xe flash tube in normal laser operation. The effect of minor conponents of silicate glass on solarization, the re-covery of degraded laser performance by thermal treatment and the prevention of solarization are also studied.
Electric resistance-humidity characteristic of elements made of various metallic oxides is investigated as the first work of a series of studies with the object of applying it to hygrometry. The results obtained are as follows. (a) Cr2O3, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 elements cover the range from 50% to 100% of relative humidity withvariations of resistance from 1000MΩ to 0.1MΩ. Logarithm of the resistance vs. relative humidity is nearly linear. (b) With Cr2O3-C composite element, the range of measurable relative humidity extends to 15% or less. (c) Of the elements which are photo-conductive such as ZnO, the resistance increases in the range of about 50% to 100% and decreases in the range below about 50% of relative humidity as the relative humidity becomes lower. As metallic oxide is impervious to water, it is different from electrolytic salts in sensitivity to humidity. The function and characteristic of metallic oxide elements are discussed in their generality.
A simple method for tip-shaping is proposed. A thin metal wire coated with insulator at one end is immersed with the coated end downward in an electrolyte solution or melt and polished electroly-tically by the ordinary or the condenser-discharge method. The immersed length of bare part of the wire above thecoated part is adjusted to be in the range of 0.5-2mm This method is favorable to electrolytic polishing procedure for tip-shaping that needs a long time operation.