Recent development of. hot-atom chemistry studies has been mainly attributed to introduction of new measurement techniques. Taking for example, charge spectrometry, Moessbauer effect measuerment and angular correlation measurement have enlarged the scope of modern hot-atom chemistry. In this report some representative results of the studies using such techniques are reviewed briefly.
Photographs of powder running down through a chute were taken by the author's method both on the lateral surface and on the upper surface. It was discovered by investigation of the photographs-that, in general, the velocity distribution of particles is in the form of the letter ‘S’. The packing of layers near the upper surface is much looser than near the bottom.
Getter ion pumps with various types of anode cell exhibit spontaneous periodic pressure fluctuations (argon instability) in the clean up of argon, krypton, and xenon. In order to obtain further information on the mechanism of this argon instability, the locations of inert gases caught by the electrodes of the pump at various phases of the pressure fluctuations are determined by using the radioactive tracer Xe131m, and the depth of erosion in the cathode is measured by means of a multiple-beam interferometer. From these experiments, it is found that the argon instability results from inert gases, which are released from strongley-eroded-regions being cleaned up at weaklyeroded region. The mechanism of argon instability is discussed from the viewpoints of the penetration of ions in metals and the sputtering of metals by ion bombardment.
Hydrodynamical flowmeters hitherto used have been all based on Bernoulli's theorem. This theorem is proved under the assumption that the law of conservation of mechanical energy holds, and consequently is inapplicable to cases in which the viscosity is not negligible. The movable tube flowmeter here reported is a hydrodynamical one not based on Bernoulli's -theorem and hence it enables measurement of the flow rate regardless of viscosity-losses. The main movable tube of the flowmeter is connected with fixed inlet and outlet tubes, by two bellows of unequal effective areas and all of these parts are put in a closed chamber filled with liquid. The pressure of the liquid outside of the main movable tube is so regulated that the main movable tube is kept in its position of zero flowrate. The flowrate is calculated from the measured values of the difference of pressure at the inlet end and the outside together with the difference of pressure at the outlet end and the outside of the main movable tube, provided the sectional areas SA*, SB* of the inlet and outlet ends and the effective areas SA, SB of both bellows are known. The results of experiment indicate that the above-mentioned theoretical considerations are correct.
Analytical considerations on the process of formation of latent electrostatic image in electrofax papers are done, being based on some experimental results on the rise characteristics of surface potential, the variation of light reflectance with layer thickness, and the effect of prolonged charging on the photo-induced discharge characteristics for the electrofax papers. It is concluded or speculated that (1) Amick's “Volume charge capacitor model” should be modified in such a way that negative O2- ions invade into the electrofax layers are migrate along the surface of ZnO microcrystals to the base, (2) light absorption characteristics of electrofax layers are represented by the equations (19)_??_(24), and (3) shape of photo-decay curve of surface potential which is specific for electrofax papers is explained by the increasing of lifetime τ of, photo-electrons throughout the process and the decreasing of effective layer thickness after the neutralization of the positive boundary charges. Furthermore, related to the above mentioned items, relationship between decrement of surface potential ΔΦ and mean traverse length _??_ of photoelectrons is clarified, and the latter is obtained as a function of Schubweg ω, with optical constants and thickness of the electrofax layer as parameters. Again, relationship between _??_ and quantum yield η of the discharging process is made clear, and an example of their measured values is shown.
Fluorescence of vinyltoluene-anthracene system was observed during the process of thermal polymerization of the system at the temperature of 88°C. The remarkable spectral change was found. The observed fluorescence of the system may be considered as superposition of the fluorescence from anthracene molecule polymerized with vinyltoluene and that from the simple anthracene molecule. The above spectral change may be attributed to the variations of βp, and βm the weights of the superposition.