High-frequency unipolar discharges in gases at atmospheric pressure, which are called as torch discharges, are summarized. Various types of the discharge generator, which are operated at frequencies between several tens and thousands MHz, and techniques to obtain the stable discharge are described. Relations between electron and gas temperatures, and energy distributions of electrons are discussed. Applications of the torch discharge as the excitation source for spectrochemical analysis are described.
A movable U tube flowmeter is a type of movable tube flowmeters which is not based on Bernoulli's theorem and hence it enables us to measure flowrate regardlessly of viscosity losses. The movable U tube of this flowmeter is connected with a fixed inlet and on outlet tube by two bellows. The shape of the U tube is arbitrary. Some typical devices of a movable U tube flowmeter are examined experimentally. Experimental results show fairly well that the theoretical considerations of a movable U tube flowmeter are correct for all devices examined.
Resistance networks have been used for the design of the magnet in the 40 GeV proton synchrotron project in Japan, because of their high accuracy, simplicity, high speed of operation and very low operation cost. In this paper, first, the analogies between the electrical potential in the network and the vector and scalar potentials in two dimensional magnetic problem are described. Next, the leakage factor, inductance and effective lengths of flux density and its gradient, which are necessary for the design of the magnet, are estimated by the use of networks and the results are in agreement with those on model magnets constructed for studies of the synchrotron magnet. Also, the magnetic field distribution in the gap of the synchrotron magnet with infinite permeability is obtained with an accuracy of less than 0.3%, and furthermore, the pole shape of the synchrotron magnet is investigated taking account of the saturation effect and it is found that there exists an optimum pole shape for a fixed pole width. Last, the results of systematic analysis for conventional quadrupole magnet are shown.
Direct deposition of silica films can be achieved by using R. F. Plasma Sputtering. This paper describes some physical properties of these films, such as temperature dependency of D. C. resistivity, dielectric property, infrared absorption and ultraviolet absorption. Dielectric constant and loss factor are measured over a frequency range from 10-1 Hz to 5MHz. For all frequencies, the dielectric constant is about 4.5 while tan δ varies from 4×10-3 to 10-3 No loss peaks are observed. The resistivity of r. f. sputtered silica film exhibits a higher value than that of silica films produced by other methods. It is found to be about 2×lO18Ωcm at room temperature. The positions of the Si-O vibrational bands in the infrared spectra are 9.3-9.4μ and 12.5μ.
Fourier analysis of grain pattern of photographic materials is known to be of great value towards estimating their optical characteristics. This paper presents a study on the relation between the grain size of silver halide of photographic emulsion and the Wiener spectrum of the developed grain pattern. Two series of photographic materials were used in this experiment, one has wide distribution of silver halide grain size and another series has a narrow distribution. The grain size of silver halide was determined by means of a centrifugal analyzer. The Wiener spectrum was determined by a high speed scanning microphotometer and a frequency analyzer. In a previous work, it was found that the mean grain size of developed silver grain was at least twice as great as the mean size of undeveloped grains. In the present work, bandwidth of the Wiener spectrum determined from silver grain pattern was found to be smaller than that expected from the mean size of silver halide grains. The mean size of grain mottles was estimated from the bandwidth of the Wiener spectrum. The mottle size obtained by this procedure was defined as expected mottle size and found that it was from four to twenty times as large as the expected grain size of developed silver halide for the specimens used in this experiment. Expected mottle size gives us a practical means of evaluating the mottle of silver halide grains and developed silver grains in the processed emulsion layer.
The author has previously reported the appearance of remarkable absorption bands in KCI crystal at 207 and 272mμ, produced by the rapid cooling of the melt in a crucible. Several features of the absorption coefficient of these bands and their dependence on the cooling velocity of the crystal have been discussed. In the present paper it is assumed that the origin of these optical absorptions is due to a certain kind of lattice defects in the crystal, which are introduced by the thermal stress in the crystal when a crystal is cooled from its surface at the temperature directly below the melting point. This model can well explain the observed features of the absorption coefficient. It is suggested that the thickness of the naturally cleaved crystal fragments must be inversely proportional to the density of the stress-induced defects.