Recent development in the study of optical properties of solids in XUV, i. e. the region between 10 and 103 eV by means of synchrotron radiation is reviewed. Absorption spectra for Cl-L2, 3 of alkali chlorides, AgCl, and TlCl, S-L2, 3 of CdS, Na+L2, 3 of sodium halides, Li+K of lithium halides observed either by INS-SOR, Tokyo, or DESY, Hamburg are presented, in which the emphasis is placed upon the exciton problems. After giving a brief summary of observations on the plasma resonance in Al, some characteristic behaviors of metals in XUV are discussed in terms of realistic, or non-hydrogenic potentials for electrons at the intermediate shells in the atom. Problems encountered in determining the optical constants in XUV are also discussed and a few techniques which seem feasible in this region, namely, the self-consistent Kramers-Kronig analysis of μ and R through the entire region of the spectrum and the analysis of reflectances measured at totally reflecting angles, are mentioned.
The conduction electron spin resonance in P-, As- and Sb-doped Si (impurity concentration: 1.5×1018_??_1.5×1020cm-3) was observed in the temperature range 77°K to 400°K. The g-value of ESR absorption was found to decrease with increasing impurity concentration and temperature. The considerable difference observed in line width for different impurity elements suggests a large contribution of the impurity effect for the relaxation processes. The experimental results were qualitatively explained using the three relaxation processes; namely, relaxation by lattice scattering, by impurity scattering and by spin-orbit coupling to donor impurity.
This paper presents a theory for space charge simulation and a method of measuring electron trajectories in axially symmetric 3-dimensional space where the effects of space charge and magnetic fields are important. Two electrolytic tanks are used for simulating electrostatic and magnetic fields, i. e., a wedge shaped tank for the former field and a hyperbolic tank for the latter, respectively. The wedge shaped tank contains current sources in the form of wire probes projected through the tank floor and the space charge can be simulated by introducing a current into the electrolyte by means of these sources. As an example, the beam performance in a convergent electron gun is described together with some results of the measured electron trajectories.
Improvement of a Ge:Cu photoconductive detector in time constant has been attained. Q-switching CO2 gas laser pulse was used for the determination of the time constant. The time constant of 20 ns has been obtained at the breakdown region. Noise equivalent power (NEP) of 5.3×10-10 W/Hz1/2 at the chopping frequency of 500 Hz has been obtained at 20μm in wavelength. This photoconductor is suitable for the measurement of high frequency phenomena in the infrared region.
The movable tube flowmeter of angular momentum type here reported is a hydrodynamical one based on the change of angular momentum when a fluid flows through the movable tube. The flowmeter enables us to measure the flow-rate independently of Bernoulli's theorem, that is, regardless of its viscosity, just as with the movable tube flowmeter of momentum type already reported. The movable tube of the flow meter is connected with fixed inlet and outlet tubes by two bellows and is able to make pivotal displacement around an axis. Two different types of flowmeters are experimentally examined. In the first device the pressures in the two bellows are made to cancel by means of a supplemental bellows, and the flow rate is calculated from measurement of torque. Second device the torque is reduced to zero by a counterpressure in the supplemental bellows, and the flow rate is calculated from measurement of pressure difference. The results of experiment indicate that the theoretically calculated values of flow rate agree fairly well with the practically measured values.
In this paper the multiple information storage in a sound wave hologram and a radio wave hologram which are constructed by the scanning of a receiver (or a detector) to measure and display the wave fields, is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. A technique to sample and record the information of different objects in a hologram according to the scanning of a receiver at different places on the hologram plane or to the different directions is proposed. In the experiment Fresnel zone plates made by handwriting and sound wave holograms constructed with the sound wave of 15 kHz are used and the optically reconstructed images from those holograms are discussed.
A new method for the wetness measurement of many and small pieces of snowcover is discussed. The total latent heat of the snowcover of wet and dry snow are compared with the use of an electrically heated differential calorimeter, The difference between the temperatures of the two vessels attains a certain definite value Δθƒ after the snowcover in both vessels melt. Δθƒ depends linearly on the wetness of the wet snowcover. In the present device, dry snowcover is displaced by a snowlike solid benzene and three samples, each of 10 g, can be measured in one operation. It is also reported that the vertical distribution of wetness within the snowcover was measured every two hours and that 6 measurements were made within 45 minutes.