Mariner 4, 5 and Venera 4 observed the atmospheric structure, temperature, pressure, and composition in the lower atmospheres and airglow, electron distribution, and exosphere temperature in the upper atmospheres and ionospheres of Venus and Mars, by using various kinds of technique. The principles and results of the measurements are critically summarized, taking also into account the results of the ground-based observation. It is emphasized that the physics and chemistry of the atmospheric processes are not yet understood well. As an example, the dispute on the interpretation of the observed electron density profiles in the Cytherean and Martian ionospheres is described in detail. A theory which explains various data at hand in a consistent manner has been developed, but its justification may remain in future. Finally, the plans for the future space probe mission are introduced in brief.
In the first part of this review, dielectric relaxations, electrical conductivity by electrons and ions, piezoelectric properties, and electret formation in amorphous polymers and partially crystalline polymers are briefly surveyed. In the second part, study on piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity, and thermoelectricity in polymer films developed by the present author and his coworkers is presented. The phenomena are concluded to come from ions embedded in the film. Voltage is induced across the surfaces of polymer films when they are vibrated in elongation (elongational piezoelectricity) and in bending (bending piezoelectricity). The former is attributed to space charge distribution antisymmetrical about the median plane of the film and the latter to symmetrical distribution. Output current from polyvinyl chloride films at high temperatures above 125°C is measured in following conditions: (1) under potential gradient (electrical conduction), (2) under temperature gradient (thermoelectricity), and (3) when the film is uniformly heated (pyroelectricity). Pyroelectricity is attributed to drift of space charge to electrodes on account of electrostatic force by image charge.
Recent progress of laser frequency stabilization and the problems in achieving a high degree of reproducibility are discussed. Stability, resettability and reproducibility of the He-Ne laser either locked in its Lamb dip or in the inverted Lamb dip due to saturated absorption of pure neon in the cavity are reviewed. The advantages of molecular absorption lines are demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. An absorption line of methane at the 3.39μm He-Ne laser wavelength has a potential accuracy of 10-13 or better as an absolute standard of wavelength. Recent observation of the inverted Lamb dip and stabilization on the methane line by Hall and studies with other molecules are described.
Rearrangement of surface atoms due to impingement or adsorption of CO and O2 gas was studied for W, Mo, Ir and Re, using the field ion microscope. Mechanism of adsorption and desorption was also studied. In the case of the surfaces of W, Mo, Ir and Re on which CO or O2 adsorbed, a clean surface could only be obtained after fiield-evaporation of several atomic layers. Corrosion is mainly infulenced by a process of surface migration of CO and O2, to which the zone of spherical metal greatly contributes : for instance,  zone of W and Mo,  zone of Ir and  zone of Re. The contribution to corrosion decreases in the sequence of Mo>W>Ir>Re. When CO or O2 adsorbs on the metal surface, the field-evaporation voltage reduces for most metals. The extent of this voltage decreases in the order Mo, W, Ir and Re.
Contrast of Lorentz electron microscopic image of ferromagnetic thin films is theoretically and experimentally investigated. First considering the case of the infinitely small electron probe situated at a finite distance from the specimen, it is found, that the ripple contrast can be increased for a constant defocussing by making a demagnified Lorentz image. Secondly the more general case is examined where the effect of the illuminating angle due to the finite probe size must be considered, and the relations between contrast, defocussing and the illuminating angle are shown. From these relations the ripple amplitude can be experimentally obtained. Moreover, the electron scattering effect in specimens can not be ignored when thick (>700Å) films are observed in 100kV electron microscope, and the utility of high voltage electron microscopy is described.
The radial distribution of the space potential in a Penning discharge was measured directly by use of several types of Langmuir probe with a high resistance in series. Preliminary experiments showed that the observed value of the space potential was very sensitive to the mutual direction between the probe arm and magnetic field, especially near the center of the anode ; the observation showed a remarkably high value when the arm was parallel to the magnetic field, but normal when the arm was at angles with the magnetic field. The radial potential difference referring to the center potential was found to vary in proportion to 2.4th to 3rd power of anode radius with the anode radius γa=13.8 mm, anode voltage Va=2 to 6 kV, magnetic field B=1 to 3 k gauss and pressure p=3 to 50×10-6 Torr.
Experimental results on electron loading of the 1MV Van de Graaff type positive-ion accelerator, which has not been in use for long time, are reported. The accelerating tube is 70cm in length and is composed of 28 sections, each of which is made of a porcelain cylinder and a stainless steel electrode of the re-entrant type. The results are as follows: 1) In the case of no ion beam. The threshold of X-ray generation caused by electron loading disappears simply after a short time of aging. The X-ray intensity increases approximately as the ninth power of the accelerating voltage (E). 2) In the case of ion beam flowing. The X-ray intensity increases approximately as E3 and increases in proportion to the amount of the beam current. It also increases with the gas pressure in the accelerating tube. 3) When the accelerator is operated at 0.9 MV, the half value layer of steel for generated X-rays is 12mm. This corresponds to X-ray energy of 0.7 MeV. 4) The X-rays are generated at a point near the ion source.
It is important for fundamental studies of networks that the generating networks whose connection is systematically generated in a certain order, be considered. Among the above networks there are those which bring about some change of connection structure in its generation, such as, electric networks connected gradually and nerve, communication and traffic networks. Now, network complexity defined by the number of paths in the network graphs may be regarded as position variables in dynamics. Therefore, corresponding to Newtoniany mechanics, generation velocity and generation acceleration are introduced ; generation force can be introduced as a superficial causal quantity. On the basis of this plan, the connection structure of generating networks can be expressed analytically, though approximately. That is to say, by establishing the order of generation appropriately, it is explained that some generation patterns of networks can be classified by the form of the generation force. In the case where a number of networks are independently generated without mutual connections, the fundamental characters of the generating networks are obtained in correspondence with the principle of superposition and parallel displacement in dynamics. On the other hand, in generating networks which have simple mutual connections, it is shown for the interpretation that generation forces are divided into two major parts ; namely, one which exists when each networks is respectively independent and the other which is produced by interaction caused by the connections of each networks.