The main progress in the art of diffraction grating ruling since Rowland is reported. Here, the mechanical approaches of the precision on the classical ruling engines, the attainment of extreme accuracy of the groove spacing with the introduction of the interferometrical control system and the advanced synthetic techniques of precision machinery, optics and electronics on the modern ruling engines are described.
In the Abel inversion the radial distribution of the emission coefficients are computed from measured values of radiance. The errors in the coefficients computed by Pearce's method are investigated. Four test curves are introduced as the shapes of radiance for which the accurate emission coefficients are known. The coefficients computed for the curve added with errors simulating observational errors are compared with the accurate coefficients. In the case of 25 divisions, the errors in the computed coefficients are about twice as large as the errors given for the curve. A method suggested to decrease the errors is as follows: An evendegree polynomial of the degree of about twelve is fitted to the error-added curve by a least squares approximation and then pearce's method is applied. This method gives coefficients which are more precise than the ones calculated by Pearce's method alone by the order of one.
Following the Romand-Vodar's principle of mounting, a 3m grazing-incidence vacuum monochromator was constructed for spectroscopic study of solids. A glass grating with 1080 lines per mm is mounted at an angle of incidence of 84.73°. The usable wavelength range of the monochromator extends from 30Å to 500Å. Accuracy in determining the wavelength is 0.03Å at 238Å. A special optical device to eliminate the zero-order light is employed and succeeds in reducing the stray light. A procedure to adjust optical parts is described in some detail. Using emission lines from a sliding-spark source, the performance of the monochromator is examined. Cl- L23 absorption spectrum of KCl is measured by the use of the continuous spectrum emitted from a soft x-ray tube to demonstrate the usefulness of the monochromator even in the wavelength range below 60Å.
The basic reactions and film compositions in glazed palladium-silver thick-film sintered layers through firing process have been examined by differential thermal analysis, thermograviometric analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. The evaporation and combustion of screening vehicles and solvents, the oxidation-reduction behaviors of palladium and silver, and the creation of palladium-silver solid solution are discussed. The relationship between film compositions and sintering temperature are also discussed, and moreover crystallite growth of oxidized palladium and palladium-silver solid solution are described.
The application of stroboscopic holographic interferometry to flexural vibration of a plate is demonstrated and the effect of the pulse width of exposure time on the reconstructed image is analyzed. If in each cycle two states of vibration, for example, two peaks of vibration are recorded on a hologram plate with stroboscopic illumination, interference fringes which are the contours of amplitude of vibration are superposed upon the reconstructed image. If however, the exposure pulse is not short enough, the object may move during the pulsed exposure. The motion of the object reduces the contrast of carrier fringes to be recorded on a hologram plate and suppresses the intensity of the reconstructed image. The intensity decreases to 80% for the exposure pulse of 1/10 of a vibration period when the amplitude of vibration is 2.6λ. Interference fringes of high contrast can be obtained for larger amplitudes of vibration if sufficiently short pulses are used. Time-averaged method of vibration analysis is also demonstrated for comparison.
When the Mo-Si Schottky barrier is formed by the plasma sputtering method, the sputtering condition exerts a subtle influence on the Si-surface. In the present report, the influence of the target voltage on Si surface was estimated from the characteristics of the Mo-Si Schottky barrier. The n-value was improved by increasing the target voltage, but a voltage dependence was observed The value of dφ/dε1-3) estimated from the voltage dependence of the η value, at target voltages of 300V, 700V and 1, 500V, were 2, 190Å, 1, 999Å and 2, 067Å respectively. By “annealing”, this voltage dependence of the η-value and the value of dφ/dε were diminished.