All human activities are first significant only when the conditions ensuring the survival of mankind and keeping our globe for our posterity are not limited to hundreds and thousands years but they survive for millions and millions years so long as the globe survives. Protection of the environment from pollution is surely one of the conditions. At the same time the conservation of energy and material to maintain our living is another important condition. In this paper the author tries to analyze the potentiality of important resources of energy and material and suggests approaches to find and establish substitutes for exhausting resources.
The causes of the atomosphere contamination are mainly due to the fixed sources as waste materials from industrial plants and the moving sources as ventilation gas from automobiles. The counter plan for the fixed sources are partly decided by using the high quality fuel, controlling the firing process and developing more efficient and simpler apparatus to gather cinders and to reject injurious contamination. In addition to those processes, It is necessary to diffuse the gas materials into the higher sky and to the wider field. The main contamination materials are composed of the oxidized materials of sulfur and mitrozen floating in the form of small particles. For ventilation gas from the moving sources the counterplan is more difficult than case of the fixed sources. This problem should be more promptly studied in future.
At the present time waste disposal as well as air, river and sea pollution are becoming an urgent problem in our national life. It is stated that the modern industrial development accompanied with mass production and consumption brings about environmental pollution by wastes, and is concluded that there is no way of solving such a problem besides collection, re-use and re-utilization of wastes. Re-utilization of wastes as well as acceleration of artificial re-circulation have the possibility of minimizing the increase of entropy as the total system, preventing environmental pollution, and establishing harmony between the nature and the artificialities, while keeping the increase in consumption and production.
The binding energy of individual adatoms of 5-d transition metals on different planes of a tungsten single-crystal was measured by the low-temperature field desorption method with a field-ion microscope. Effective field correction of work functions, determined from the FowlerNordheim plots, lead to agreement with the work functions obtained by the Kelvin method. Binding energies determined by the use of the compensated work functions, the effective desorption field and the appropriate field desorption formulated to reasonable results. The increasing order of the binding energies of adatoms on different planes, namely, (110)<(100)<(112)<(111) agreed well with the energetics estimated from the Morse potential curve and the hard sphere model on crystal planes.
In general, an extremely high diffraction efficiency is obtained by a phase hologram. However, the bleached photographic phase hologram obtained from an amplitude hologram necessitates stabilisation from fading and reduction of noise in the reconstructed image. In this paper, changes in the fade resistance stability and diffraction efficiency of holograms bleached by various processes are described. The most stable bleaching method is found to be that using iodide. The cause of noise in images reconstructed by the bleached photographic phase holograms are shown to be due mostly to the intermodulation term within the holograms. The negative feedback method is suggested to be the most suitable for reducing this noise. When the above-mentioned iodide bleached hologram is treated by this method, extremely effective results in improving the quality of the reconstructed image are obtained.
Radiative characteristics of axially symmetric flames which are not so strongly self-absorbing, have been analyzed by solving the integral epuations which relate the radial distributions of the emission and absorption coefficients to the emitted radiance profiles obtained by using the two-path method. This paper suggests a procedure in which a modification utilizing the concept of the mean (arithmetic and harmonic mean) is made so as not to overestimate the self-absorption as in former methods, and, therefore, may be applied to flames with considerable or very much stronger self-absorption.
Heat treatment is found to be very effective for obtaining thin film Cu2-xSe-CdSe photo voltaic cells and its time is dependent on the resistivity of CdSe films. This effect is at tributed to the diffusion of copper into the CdSe film from the Cu2-xSe film during the heat treatment. Diffusion voltage built in the cell is explained qualitatively as a contact potential between Cu2-xSe and CdSe.