The fundamental idea of molecular biology is “one function-one molecule”. There must be a different kind of protein molecule corresponding to each unit function of the living sys-tem. Unit functions are rather directly related to the properties of specific protein molecules. The living system as a whole is a network or a circuit of these molecules. The behaviors of bacterium and other single cell organisms are analysed on the basis of this idea. Their circuit is composed of information receptors, information transducers and motile units. These organi-sms can find and come to the environment they like by using this circuit, in which the infor-mation receptor detects the time derivative of the environmental condition. A molecular machine localized on the cell membrane to detect such a time derivative is analysed.
Recent development in the application of magnetic resonance to biological systems is briefly reviewed. The magnetic resonance methods including high resolution NMR, pulse NMR and spin label EPR are described in terms of their merits and limitations in biological application. Recent interesting studies on biological macromolecules by magnetic resonance are explained in three sections : protein, nucleic acid and biological membrane. The covered topics in the protein section are histidine titration in RNase, various approaches taken for studying lysozyme, the heme-heme interaction in ;hemoglobin, oxidation-reduction in cytochrome c and few others. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement method applied to the studies of the active sites of enzymes is also mentioned. In the nucleic acid section only tRNA studies are briefly described. The topics mentioned in the biological membrane section are molecular motions in phospholipid bilayers.
Among many X-ray diffraction studies on boilogical substances, which played an important role in the subsequent developments in biology, the studies of fibrous proteins, DNA, enzymes and haemoglobin are selected and described in detail showing how the diffraction method can be applied and what kind of contributions have been made to biology.
The influence of sputtering conditions (target-current, target-voltage and deposition-rate) on Mo-Si Schottky barrier formation was investigated. In this experiment, a tetrode plasma sputtering equipment was employed (NEC-type). Forward current-voltage characteristics and saturation current of the sputtered Mo-Si Schottky barrier were influenced by the target-current (when target-voltage is constant, depositionrate is proportional to target-current). But, in the region of low target-voltage (V=400 V), these characteristics did not show any dependence on the target-current. On the contrary, a considerable dependence was observed in the region of high target voltage. Also, with the target-current kept constant), these characteristics are seen to be the most favourable when the target voltage lies between 500 V and 600 V.
In the present ionic deposition coating method, a beam of fine ionic particles is drawn out from a melt of the source material under an electric field of several hundred volts applied between the melt and a loop electrode, the melt being produced by heating the material with a beam of electrons focussed thereon in a vacuum of 10-4 Torr. The ionic particles together with fine neutral particles evaporated from the melt are found to condense and deposit upon a substrate placed in the rear of the loop electrode. Either a beam of positively or negatively charged fine particles can be obtained as desired by simply changing the sign of the electric potential set for extracting the particles from the melt.
Mode patterns and oscillation characteristics of a helical type TEA*CO2 Laser have been studied. Low order transverse mode pattern obtained by use of an 8 mmø field aperture in the cavity differed from shot to shot, and it needed a 5 mmø field aperture to operate the Laser in the lowest transverse mode. Maximum peak power obtained was 1.3 MW at multimode operation.