As one of the most interesting applications of optical heterodyne detection in scientific measurements, various types of doppler velocimeters have been recently developed with the use of laser light. In this report, doppler velocimeters are classified into two groups of reference and self-comparison methods, each of which has two different systems of optical arrangement called as an alignment system and a self-alignment system. Various properties cl doppler velocimeters are discussed, such as measurements of a flow direction, three-dimensional measurements of a flow, and properties and processings of beat signals.
Using a visible tunable dye laser pumped by the ultraviolet second harmonic of a single mode ruby laser, a study of the break-down threshold measurements in a number of gases has been carried out at wavelengths ranging from 4000 to 6650 Å and the result obtained revealed the existence of a break-down threshold minimum at 5740 Å in Kr and at 5860 Å in both Ar and Xe. In addition it has been demonstrated for the first time that the self-focusing of the laser beam is influenced by the wavelength of the incident radiation.
Following a previous paper dealing with various divalent metal ions, the effects of the complex ions of rarer platinum metals (RhCl63-, PtCl62-, RuCl62-, OsCl62-, and PdCl62-), known to have strong oxidizing abilities, have been examined at about 600nm at liquid N2 temperature upon the delayed part of the emission of cubic AgBr grains in photographic emulsions and also upon their photographic sensitivities. In accord with the previous result, RhCl63-, PtCl62- RuCl62- and OsCl62- decreased both emission intensity and photographic speed of the grain, which is compatible with the view that they act as deep electron traps at the grain surface. The absence of these effects by PdCl62- was suggested to result from its strong interaction with gelatin.
This paper describes holography from the point of display-use, together with a new technique on wide angle holography, in which reflections by mirrors are applied and the hologram is made in two stages. In the first stage, an object is recorded holographically in an arrangement in which both the object and a photosensitive material are surrounded by suitable reflecting surfaces (the re-cording of the first hologram.) After that, the first hologram is put in the same position as was occupied on its record-ing stage and a real image of the object is reconstructed. In this second stage a second pho-tosensitive material is arranged near the real image of the object, on which the real image is recorded holographically as an image hologram (the recording of the second hologram.) The hologram (the second hologram) made by the above technique has the advantage of being image-type with a wide view angle properties. Trial experiments showed the feasibility of the new technique. The method described in this paper may be widely applied not only to get a wide view angle hologram but obtain holograms which have other remarkable characteristics. Thus, the method is applicable, for example, to the following, 1) increase in light intensity of the reconstructed holographic image, 2) super-resolution by the holographic technique, 3) local reference beam holography.
The intensity curves resulting from a 127°-type electrostatic electron energy analyzer have been computed. Generally, the curves are dependent on radius and interval of deflecting cylinders, as well as on the widths of incident and exit slits and their heights. Optimum condition seems to be obtained when the analyzer is adjusted so that the incident and exit slits have equal width.
A new and very simple relay circuit is devised to control physical quantities such as temperature and pressure using a sensitive detector with an electric contact. It only re-quires a d-c current of 8 μA and an a-c voltage of 0.5 V at the contact of the detector for closing and opening the circuit, respecti-vely, and permits load currents up to 24 A. Circuits modified for a load current of more than 24A and to be used as a power cont-roller are also reported.
To sum up, we have discussed briefly some of the ways in which channeling (in combination with Rutherford scattering) may be used to obtain precise geometrical information on the location of atoms in relation to the crystal lattice. This is one of the more difficult questions to answer from Mossbauer, N. M. R., or diffraction studies, and so channeling offers an important supplement to these other techniques.