In section 1, theoretical and practical importance of polyvinylcarbazole and the related polymers among various kinds of photoconductive, polymers has been discussed. In section 2, crystal and molecular structure of polyvinylcarbazole and the related polymers are reviewed. Distance between carbazolyl groups is concluded to be comparable to that of the anthracene molecules in anthracene crystal. In section 3, dark conductivity in polyvinylcarbazole is reviewed. In section 4, absorption and emission spectra-photophysical processes-in polyvinylcarbazole and the related polymers are discussed and summarized as shown in Fig. 10. Finally, in section 5, present status of the photoconductivity in polyvinylcarbazole and the related polymers is reviewed.
A movable tube mass flowmeter belongs to the class of mass flowmeters with constant flow apparatus. By such a mass flowmeter, mass flow rate can be calculated theoretically without the need of a discharge coefficient. The mass flowmeter reported here is different from the previous one reported by us. Principal differences being as follows: i) Only one movable tube is used in the present mass flowmeter instead of two as in the previous one. ii) Mass flow rate is calculated from two measured values by the present mass flowmeter of the noncompensated type instead of three measured values by the previous one. Experiments were carried out using two trial mass flowmeters with movable tubes of different shape. The experimental results show fair agreement with the theory.
Transparent conducting films such as SnO2 are usually fabricated by thermal decomposition of SnCl4. In this case, HCl gas is ordinarily produced and gives rise to some trouble in the manufacturing process. In order to avoid HCl gas in the fabricating process of transparent conducting films, the authors have studied the thermal decomposition of tetraalkyltin, and obtained results in which our expectations are fully realized. These films were deposited on pyrex glass, and their physical and electrical properties were investigated. From the study of X-ray diffraction patterns and electron diffraction patterns, it was found that films produced at a comparatively low temperature consist of SnO and SnO2 and films produced at a higher temperature consist of SnO2. Depending on the characteristics of the SnO2 film, electrical properties are almost equal to or higher than those of films obtained by decomposition of SnCl4. Moreover our method are superior to the ordinary method from the point of view of manufacturing process.
A simple equation for the formation of an image for the Bragg Imaging System is derived, in which the effect of the diffraction-limit of the scattered sound waves due to the aperture of the illuminating optical lens and the spread of the linefocussed light are considered. Comparison of calculated and experimental results for one-dimensional objects, show a good coincidence for objects of width over 30 times of the sound wavelength. In the images of objects of such a large size contrast of the edges is sharpened as found through both calculated and experimental results. Especially in the case where penetrating sound waves due to the rotation of the object exists, the effect is remarkable and it seems to be caused by a phase discontinuity between incident and penetrating sound waves at the boundary of the object.
Numerical hologram conversion techniques are discussed, where Fresnel-transform acoustical holograms are converted into Fourier-transform holograms. Two kinds of conversion techniques, that is, conversion techniques in the Fourier spectrum plane and in the hologram plane are discussed referring to two kinds of numerical image reconstruction techniques. The latter technique is newly proposed in this paper and this technique is proved suitable for conversion of off-axis holograms. In this technique a Fresnel-transform hologram is converted by multiplying the hologram by a phase function in the hologram plane. Experiments are done, where an in-line Fresnel-transform acoustical hologram constructed with a 15 kHz soundwave is converted according to the former technique and optically reconstructed images in and out of the Fourier transform plane are discussed. An off-axis Fresnel-transform acoustical hologram constructed with a 18 kHz soundwave is also converted according to the latter technique and optically reconstructed images are obtained.
An experimental study has been made of the anodic. reaction of silicon in 49% HF solution with emphasis on n-type in order to form the anodic film. Current-voltage characteristics, the effective dissolution valence, and the effect of illumination during the anodization have been determined for n-, and n+-samples. Moreover the relation between anode potential and the anodization, and the results of infrared spectrum, electron diffraction, and specific gravity of the anodic film are discussed. The discussions are given on the mechanism of the formation of the anodic film, partly based on the experimental results obtained by Memming and Schwandt.