Recent states of researches on various interactions of electrons with matter are reviewed from a unifying viewpoint for the energy region between 10 eV and several tens MeV. In the first half, elementary processes such as ionization, excitation, Auger effect, plasma excita-tion, collision with free electrons, nuclear scattering and bremsstrahlung, are outlined. In the latter half, multiple processes and penetration through thick layers of matter are treated. Problems remaining to be solved are also suggested.
Experimental studies on the rotational relaxation of CO2 molecule in laser oscillating medium are critically reviewed. Methods of determination of the relaxation constants in the time domain, such as successive Q-switching technique and gain measurement under pulsed excitation, as well as measurement of line width of the vibrational-rotational transitions in the frequency domain, are described in detail. The results are compared quantitatively with each other. A specific feature of the vibrational relaxation, which is closely related to the rotational relaxation, is also discussed. An application of the rotational relaxation constants to the analysis of a high power laser is also shown.
Various specimens were prepared by uniformly spreading powders of different kinds over iron plates with alcohol or water used as a binding material. To form a diffusion layer of an element as a powder, the specimen was heated to a high temperature by subjecting it to the bombardment of a scanning electron beam which is focused thereon. Crystal structures of the specimens were analysed by an X-ray diffractometer, and the sectional structures were investigated by an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Thin melted layers formed on the surfaces which were covered with powders of WC, Sic and B4C had Vickers hardness numbers of 1, 900, and 700 and 900, respectively. The high hardness is ascribed to the ternary alloys produced in the specimens. The specimen covered with Ce(NO3)3 6H2O withstands melting caused by the bombardment of electrons. This heat resisting property may be attributed to depositions of CeO2 in the specimen.
Zeeman frequencies of 85Rb atom in F=3 level are calculated as Δνz(±3↔±2)=466 735.25(5)F_??_359.428 2(6)F2+0.221 238 9(4)F3, Δνz(±2↔±1)=466 735.25(5)F_??_215.656 9(5)F2-0.044 247 7(9)F3, and Δνz(±1↔0)=466 735.25(5)F_??_71.885 65(1)F2-0.176 991 1(5)F3 Hz, where F is in G units. It is shown that influences of virtual transitions and fictitious magnetic fields cancel in the improved dual-cell 85Rb magnetometer. To attain the high accuracy above, non resonant characteristics in the atomic oscillator circuits were found to be essential. By comparative measurements with the proton magnetometer at the Simosato Observatory the 85Rb magnetometer showed accuracies of +0.89γ when the sensor was at 35°C and +1.47γ at 45°C. The enhanced paramagnetism of 85Rb atoms pumped with D1σ+, light is discussed. The residual magnetism of the Rb sensor was estimated to be +0.5γ.