Resistometric studies of lattice defects in metals are reviewed, including the various methods to measure a small electrical resistance and a small change in resistance. The methods include both the AC and the DC-technique. Especially, the automatic recording system by AC method is described in detail. Resistometric studies are described concerning the recovery process of point defects, generation process of vacancy, binding energy of point defects and the deviation from Matthiessen's rule. Several problems are pointed out on the determination of formation energy, migration energy and binding energy of point defects from the resistivity measurements. Lastly, the specific electrical resistivities of vacancy, dislocation, stacking fault and grain boundary etc. are tabulated.
Numerical image reconstruction methods in long-wavelength holography are discussed systematically, and experiments of image reconstructions from sound-wave hologram by computer are conducted. There are three methods for reconstructing images from holograms, namely, method with a propagation function, with the analytical Fourier transform of the propagation function and with a quadratic phase function. To calculate images by these methods, FFT algorithm is used three times, twice, and once, respectively. In this paper, the reconstruction method with a propagation function is discussed and the condition of its applicability is determined. It is pointed out that the method with the analytical Fourier transform of the propagation function can be interpreted as a method with an equivalent propagation function. Experiments on the construction of Fresnel zone plate and reconstructions from soundwave hologram are conducted by the three methods.
The measuring principle for the annular viscometer is systematically developed on the basis of Newton's laws of motion and of viscocity. The viscometer can be constructed in three types ; that is fixed tube, movable outer tube and movable inner tube types. To determine the viscosity, pressure difference and volumetric flow-rate are to be measured in the case of the fixed tube type, and force and volumetric flow-rate in the cases of the movable outer tube and movable inner tube types. Some experiments with viscometers of all types were carrid out. Each of the viscometers have auxiliary annuli pipes on the upstream and downstream sides of the main annuli pipes. An advantage of the annular viscometer with auxiliary pipes over the capillary viscometer is that the so-called kinetic energy correction and end correction are not needed. The experimental results by use of the standard viscosity sample JS 50 agree fairly well with the values given by National Research Laboratory of Metrology.
This paper is concerned with experimental researches on the characteristics of squid skin, egg-shell membrane and bamboo film used as a new hygroscopic body for an elongation hygrometer. To examine the relation between elongation, relative humidity and temperature of each of these hygroscopic bodies, the method of drawing equi-dew-point lines is adopted. Squid skin treated with aging shows little hysteresis and fair reproducibility. Egg-shell membrane has a large elongation and rapid response. Bamboo film shows medium response and the elongation is nearly proportional to the relative humidity. It is shown by experimental results (Fig. 8 Fig. 12 Fig. 16) that the relation between the relative humidity and its elongation for each hygroscopic body is nearly independent of temperature.
The spectral responses of Pb1-xSnxTe infrared detectors prepared by Pb or Sb diffusion in closed tube were measured. Changes in the spectral photo-response and its band width were observed by controlling the diffused impurity. The peak response wavelength of Pb diffused Pb0.8Sn0.2Te diode shifts from 7.7 to 10.2μm as the diffusion time increases from 48 to 72 hours at 630°C. The difference of the spectral response on diffusion condition can be utilized to make detectors with any desired spectral response. We succeeded in making a detector with peak detectivity D10.2* μm=3.5×1010cm√Hz/W from a Bridgman grown crystal.
Amorphous Ge or PbTe on crystalline Pb1-xSnxTe heterojunction has been prepared by vacuum evaporation. During evaporation, the substrate temperature was kept at 77K. The rectification property of this junction is better than that of metal-semiconductor contact. Infrared photoresponse has been observed and it should be applicable for the new type infrared detector.
The effect of ion implantation on a surface treatment of quartz oscillator plate was investigated. 100 KeV boron ions were implanted at room temperature onto the surface of Agthin film electrodes evaporated on AT-cut quartz oscillator plate. It was found that the appearance of frost or dew drops on the electrode surface of the quartz plate was strongly suppressed by boron ion implantation and the oscillation continued, even if the quartz plate was exposed to the moist air ambient under the temperature condition below dew point. Moreover the critical temperature of oscillation interruption was dependent on ion dose.