Present status of the analytical atomic spectrometry is extensively reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the spectroscopic aspect of the fundamental problems in this field. Firstly, the sensitivity and the detection limit in the flame spectrometry are discussed based on the theoretical studies. Secondly, recent advances in instruments and techniques, which are also important from the practical point of view, are described. Finally the dye laser application to the analytical atomic spectrometry are reviewed and the, ability of the lasers to provide valuable analytical techniques is suggested.
The methods of measuring deformation of diffuse objects by laser light are surveyed mainly from optical points of view. They are holographic interferometry, speckle interferometry, and speckle photography. Sensitivities and limitations of these methods are discussed and compared with each other. Practical features of each method are also outlined. The interrelations of their principles and functions are explained in terms of the laser-speckle behaviours resulting from the object deformation. Several fields of application such as determination of threedimensional surface displacement, displacement measurement for interior points of a transparent body, and stress analysis are reviewed.
A water injection dew point hygrometer of atmospheric pressure type with a U-tube water manometer is described. The dew point hygrometer is composed of a sample vessel, a water injector and a Utube open water manometer. The U-tube manometer is connected to the vessel by a glass tube with a three-way cock. One end of the three-way cock is open to the atmosphere. The space between the U-tube manometer and the three-way cock is saturated with water vapor. A sample gas is introduced into the vessel and a definite amount of water is injected into the vessel. The dew point of the sample gas is obtained theoretically from the increase of pressure by the water injection. Results of experiments show that the pressure of the sample gas becomes almost in equilibrium within 1 min after the water injection, and that the dew point is measurable with an accuracy of ±0.1°C.
The variations of the ion yield of laser-produced metallic plasma have been investigated in the background pressure between 7×10-7 and 3×10-4 Torr. The yields of singly charged ion species increased monotonously with pressure and those of multiple-charged ions (up to z=4) showed maxima at 8×10-5 or 2×10-4 Torr depending on the target material and ionic charge. The microwave measurements of expanding plasma indicated that the maximum charge per ion obtained in the initial stage of expansion would not change up to the pressure of 1×10-4 Torr. From the results, it is concluded that the pressure dependence is caused by the charge transfer between plasma and background gas molecule during expansion.