The purpose of this report is to review the developing status of the fast breeder project in Japan. In chapters 1 and 2 the backbone of the inevitability to develop the fast breeder reactor is explained and the present status of the development of the FBRs in each country, especially the positioning of Japan in the world is briefly described. In chapters 3 and 4 the principle and features of the fast breeder reacter are reviewed from the viewpoints of reactor physics, plant design, coolant characteristics, fuel materials and structural materials. In the last chapter the present status of the first experimental fast reactor of Japan, “JOYO”, is reported.
In order to overcome present and future energy problems which come from the increase of the price and the unstable supply of oil, it is necessary to have an intensive research and development program for energy conservation and alternative energy sources. In the present national energy research program, the introduction of nuclear energy is most emphasized. It must be pointed out, however, that the national energy research program should be well-balanced and that more attention should be paid to coal which has a great potential as an alternative energy source. The amount of useful energy from natural energy sources such as solar, geothermal, ocean thermal and wind energies is limited and seems to become only subsidiary. Advanced coal technologies such as gasification, liquifaction, advanced combustion and clean-up system, and advanced electrical power generators are described.
The performance of thermally excited mixing-type N2/CO2 gasdynamic lasers (GDLs) is affected by various parameters; the nitrogen stagnation temperature and pressure, mixing methods, the CO2 flow rate, the foreign gas additions, etc. This paper describes theoretical and experimental studies on the mixing-type N2/CO2 GDLs, over a wide range of these parameters. Theoretical prediction, which uses a simplified mixing model and a linear mixing rate is able to give a qualitative explanation of the experimental results. It is found that a cavity mixing is the superior method and that, within the range of 1000K_??_1500K, the gain coefficients and the laser power increase almost linearly with the increase of the reservoir temperature, but the addition of foreign gases (He, Ar) exerts only a minor influence on them.
A special type resonance tube inclining by an angle of 30° to 50° with respect to the nozzle axis has been studied for the first time. The gas within the tube is excited to intense periodic oscillation and the gas temperature at the closed tube end reaches some 150°C. The mechanism of the oscillation excitation has been found to be the periodic deflection of the supersonic jet caused by the collision of the jet with its swirl flow at the open end of the tube.
The difinition of exchargy is given and its significance as the true content of effective energy associated with a given system in a given environment is considered. Its graphical representation on a P-V diagram is shown. Curves are given showing the dependence of exergy on temperature and pressure, and their significance in the design of energy storage system is considered. The thermodynamical efficiency of room heating systems is considered as an application.
Present status of researches on high power mm wave source, “Gyrotron” and it's application to plasma heating are reviewed. The theories of cyclotron resonancc maser (C. R. M.) are presented in § 2 and the historical survey on experimental studies on C. M. R. is given in § 3. In § 4, the experimental studies and the plan on electron cyclotron heating in fusion research are briefly reviewed.
This review firstly describes two discharge modes in the magnetron sputtering. The first mode appears with a weak magnetic field below 1, 000G. In this mode the dominant space charge in the discharge is positive (PSC mode). The sputtering devices using the PSC mode are useful for making the interconnections and electrodes of semiconductor devices. The second mode appears with a strong magnetic field above 1, 000G. In this mode negative space charge is dominant (NSC mode). The NSC mode is useful for making thin compound films at low temperatures. The structure, electrical properties and sputtering conditions of thin compound films such as oxides and nitrides prepared by the NSC mode are also described in this review.