“Solid state ionics” is a field involving the study of the phenomena of ions in solids, especially solids which exhibit high ionic conductivities at fairly low temperatures below their melting points. High conductivity solid cationic conductors found so far are monovalent cation conductors such as hydrogen-, lithium-, sodium-, potassium-, silver- and copper (I) -ion conductors. High conductivity anionic conductors, the charge carriers in which are halide- and oxide-ion have been found. These conductors have been found in stoichiometric compounds having ionic disordered phases and nonstoichiometric compounds or solid solutions posessing high intrinsic or extrinsic ionic vacancy concentrations. In this paper, these solid ion conductors are reviewed.
The Doppler frequency shift caused by a moving boundary of an isotrophic, nondispersive, and nonlinear medium has already been studied and reported. However, some of the actual devices for applying the Doppler effect to laser techniques, for example, are not necessarily nondispressive and isotropic, in fact they may be dispersive and/or anisotropic. In order to study effects of a medium on the characteristics of an electromagnetic wave propagation, the interaction of the wave with the fast moving boundary between the vacuum and a dispersive anisotropic magnetized-plasma is discussed. This paper shows the CMA diagrams in several figures, which can describe the propagation characteristics in a magnetized plasma. It is concluded that the CMA diagrams are much different from those with a stationary boundary. The results of this paper may present useful data to the study of relativistic electromagnetic theory, the ionospheric wave propagation, the laser techniques, and so on.
A study has been made on the influence of lightening area of 905 nm pulsed infrared laser as the carrier injection source on the decay characteristics of the microwave power reflected from the sample in contactless lifetime measurement, using 9.6 GHz microwave. It was found from the decay curve of the reflected power that it has a maximum value in the early stage when the lightening spot diameter on the surface of the sample became less than about four times as long as the diffusion length of minority carriers.
Selective oxidations that take place at the surface of dental gold alloys were studies in terms of RHEED. The surfaces of the alloy containing 0.4 weight percent Sn was covered with a chemically active SnO2 layer when oxidized at 1000°C in air. This oxide layer served for mating the alloy substrate with the dental porcelain blending with SnO2. The surface of the alloy containing 0.1 percent Si was covered wih a SiO2 layer when calcined at 1000°C in air. This mineralized surface could coment together with the conventional dental porcelain.
The sea dumping of low-level radioactive waste, under way in European countries and in preparation in Japan, is briefly commented. Emphasis is placed upon the preoperational survey of the proposed dumping site located at 30°N, 147°E in the North-West Pacific. Technical difficulties in obtaining representative samples in the vicinity of dumped packages make the environmental monitoring prohibitive with the effectiveness of expected information. At present, the dumping site suitability and exposure assessment objective can better be achieved by welldefined, sharply focussed oceanographic observations and modelling. In the light of recent progress in ocean sciences, particularly in eddy dynamics, this approach would enable to construct more realistic site-specific models of the radionuclide dispersion.
The present status of the medical use of particle accelerator other than small electron linac and betatron was reviewed. Particles used mainly for cancer therapy are neutrons and charged particles including negative poins, protons, helium, carbon and neon ions. As the medically dedicated machine, proton and helium accelerator can be easily constructed with manufacturer's guarantee and superconduction cyclotron for neutron production can be developed in a few years, while heavy ion and pion accelerators are still for the research and not for the inhospital apparatus.
Reliability of Josephson devices in 4.2-300 K thermal cycling and room-temperature aging is reviewed. Special emphasis is put on recent progress in the stability of Pb-alloy Josephson junctions. Improved thermal cyclability by the use of Pb-In-Au and/or Pb-Bi electrodes and reduced film thickness is described first. Room-temperature aging effect, which is attributable to compositional variation in the tunneling oxide layer from Pb- and In-oxide mixture into In oxide, is then discussed. The reliability of Nb-based Josephson junctions is also described.