Recent development of research on electrical conduction in polymers is reviewed. It is explained by using the data on electrical conduction in (SN)x and (CH)x that intra-molecular conduction is easier compared with inter-molecular conduction in polymers. The difference of electrical conduction in crystalline and amorphous parts in polymer is pointed out. Dependences of mobility on molecular structure, crystallinity and measurement methods are also discussed. Pre-breakdown current, photoconduction and halogen doping in polmers are briefly mentioned.
The brightness of single-crystal LaB6 cathodes of <100>, <110> and <111> orientations were each measured for cathode temperatures from 1500 to 1950K at 20 kV. As a preliminary examination of the present technique, the brightness of W-hairpin cathode was measured from 2300 to 2800K. This result has agreed very well with the theoretical brightness for φ=4.4 eV and A=120 A/cm2deg2. The maximum brightness of each of the <100>, <110> and <111> LaB6 cathodes were almost the same and were twice as high as those for the cross-over point of the single spot which is obtained by applying a higher bias voltage (negative to cathode). These maximum brightness are described quite well by the theoretical brightness for φ=2.6 eV and A=60 A/cm2deg2 within the limited region of cathode temperatures restricted by space charge effect and oxidation on the cathode surface.
The water current meter of thermal conductivity type reported here utilizes a thermopile for velocity measurement. The detector is composed of a thermopile of 20 (cc) couples, attached on a thin long rec-tangular mica plate, and a fine heating wire of constantan wound on the plate near its one end. The termopile measures the difference of temperatures between the heated part of the mica plate and the unheated part. That is, the velocity of water is measured by the temperature difference. The results of experiments by constant heat method and constant temperature difference method show that the velocity of water 0_??_1 m/s can be measured with an accuracy of ±2%. The graphic charts of the temperature difference and heatingcurrent obtained by both methods are approximately hyperbolic curves for the velocity of water.
There are two kinds of moire fringes; summation and multiplication types. The formation if the summation moire is interpretated in terms of the nonlinear characteristics of recording materials when the observation system cannot resolve the details of constituent grid-structures. When different parts of the characteristic curve of photographic emulsion are used a reversal phenomenon in contrast is observed, to which a theoretical explanation is given.
Ultrafine particles of silver were prepared by vacuum evaporation on running oil substrate. Octoil-S (ester), HIVAC F-4 (silicone) and other oils were used as substrates. It was found that the particles prepared in HIVAC F-4 have a strong tendency to coagulate together compared to those prepared in Octoil-S. When the particles in Octoil-S were separated from the oil by distillation in vacuum, they formed a thin film even at a temperature as low as 80°C.
The definition, background and derivation are given for a provisional temperature scale, Ehelle provisoire de Température de 1976 entre 0. 5 K et 30 K, which is intended to all eviateinconsistencies which exist between liquid helium vapour pressure scales and the IPTS-68 and to set an internationaltemperature scale below 13. 81 K. The interpolation instruments for realizing this scale are briefly discussed with the reference points.
The channeled-ion implantation into silicon is an attractive doping technique which is more advantageous than the random implantation in the characteristics such as deeper doping profile, less radiation damage and thinner selective implantation mask. This paper reviews the theory of channeling, carrier depth distribution of implanted ions, implantation machine and the applications to silicon devices. The effects on the carrier profile of implanted ions is discussed in terms of various parameters such as the crystal orientation, the ion energy, the ion species, the ion dose, the target temperature, the surface preparation of target. General shape of carrier depth distribution of channeled dopant ions can be determined theoretically but detailed profile must still be determined experimentally. In the advance of the machine technology, the parallel-scanning system of ion beam can provide high doping uniformity and reproducibility comparable to that of random implantation.