Various properties of amorphous alloys are reviewed. The amorphous phase formation and the stability depend on the solute atoms. The electrical and galvanomagnetic properties are different from those of crystalline alloys due to a high resistivity of amorphous alloys. Many refractory metal-based amorphous alloys become superconducting materials. The saturation magnetization of Febased amorphous alloys is large and these alloys are promising as power transformers. Their large linear magnetostrictions are also suitable for delay lines. Co-based amorphous alloys exhibit good soft magnetic properties and they are suitable for devices such as magnetic recording heads and cartridge. Fe- and Co-based amorphous films containing rare earth elements are favorable for thermomagnetic recording devices. The catalytic reaction, the corrosion resistance and the hydrogen absorption are prominent properties.
Metal-metal interfaces were formed by depositing Ga, Sn and In on W and Mo and investigated by fully utilizing the unique capabilities of the field emission microscope (FEM), the field ion microscope (FIM) and the atom-probe. The deposited metals exihibited a double layer structure ; the overlayer and the interface layer, in which every atom contacts directly with the substrate atoms. The interface layer atoms are arranged in the pseudomorph or the superstructure and their binding energies with the foreign atoms are found to be larger than that of the overlayer atoms. The strongly bound atoms maximize the work function of the substrate surface while their polarizabilities are significantly smaller than that of the over-layer atoms. At low temperatures the foreign metal atoms contacting at the interface are clearly separated and no intermixed layer is formed. Above 900 K Mo diffuses into Ga and forms the ordered alloy Mo3Ga. The interface of Mo and Mo3Ga is also clear and not a single atomic layer with an intermediate Mo concentration is found.
Cooperative Laboratories, VLSI Technology Research Association Paraxial trajectories in a large diameter two stage lens were obtained by computer simulation, in which the magnetic flux density distribution of a symmetric magnetic doublet for the electron reduction projection system was used. The ray equation of the electron was solved and the resolving power and distortion were calculated by applying Glaser's equation. Results are as follows; (1) On the 1:4 reduction image of 4mm×4mm field, calculated resolving power and distortion were 0.27μm and 0.1%, respectively. (2) The results were improved by adjusting the exciting current of the 1st to the 2nd projection lens, and a resolving power of 0.15μm and distortion of 0.03% were obtained. These were consistent with the experiment. (3) The best condition in (2) fitted in with the condition where the electron starting from the object point parallel to the axis reached the image point also parallel to the axis.
The presence of tensile stress in silver films evaporated onto and later removedfrom the substrate was found previosly (Mitani et al.: Oyo Butsuri 46 (1977) 677) by X-ray lattice strain analysis. This indicates that there must be some more or less rigid domains in the film, whose strains escape from being detected by the X-ray method, that are in a compressed state and offer resistance to contraction of the film as a whole. In order, therefore, to identify such domains, Young's modulus calculated from the lattice strain and the half value width of X-ray diffraction intensity have been principally studied. It is found that both values decrease as film thickness increases by the deposition. Larger values of the half width are observed if the thickness decreases by etching. These results strongly suggest that the rigid domains are actually the grain boundaries.
The discharge in a low pressure gas (<10 m Torr) is utilized as a method for preionization in a tokamak experiment or for generating a plasma of neutral particleinjector. In such cases the discharge voltage becomes very high, as pd is very small. To make the discharge easier, a method which provides numerous initial electrons or which decreases the loss of charged particles with the help of a magnetic field, for example, is utilized. Here the Z-discharge in a low pressure Ar gas, where numerous initial electrons were provided by a hot cathode, was studied. This paper proposes a model of the mechanism of formation of an Ar arc-dischargefor plasma generation, and describes the loss mechanism of the highly ionized plasma in a low pressure gas discharge.
Firstly, experiments are carried out with a wet-and-dry-plate hygrometer and a bimetallic psychrometer of temperature-difference and temperature type. The ratior of the temperature difference Δt of the dry and wet bulbs in the case of wind velocity v, to the temperature difference Δts in the case of sufficient wind velocity is obtained under the conditions of constant humidity and temperature of air. Secondly, experiments are carried out with nine different types of psychrometers. In all cases the temperature differences Δt is measured under the same wind velocity as that of the natural wind. A method is established to obtain the relative humidity by the measurement of the temperature difference Δt, combined with Sprung's psychrometric formula, underthe condition that the relation between r and v are experimentally known.
A new method using the chromatographic effect is proposed to evaluate the cleanliness of In2O3 surfaces in air. This method is more sensitive than the conventional methods. The relation between the cleanliness of the surfaces and the orientation of the liquid crystals on them has been investigated by using this method. It has been found that liquid crystals containing a small amount of amphiphilic materials align themselves perpendicular to the clean polar surfaces of In2O3.
Angular dependent negative magnetoresistance in two dimensional metallic conduction of inversion layers on semiconductor surfaces is believed to be evidence forthe scaling theory of Anderson localization. After a review of negative magnetoresistance in Si-MOS inversion layers and a brief summary of the scaling theory of Anderson localization, it is shown that Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka's theory which is based on the Anderson localization of two dimensional random systems fairly well reproduces the observed negative magneto-resistance. The temperature and carrier concentration dependences of energy relaxation time determined from data are well explained by the electron-electron scattering.