本稿では第一に,基礎物理定数を標準で表わすという現在の公式の関係は,逆に標準を基礎物理定数で表わすという関係により標準は基礎物理定数によってモニターされていることを述べる.この定数と標準の関係は1:1の対応のみならず全体としての対応が重要である. 第二に1970年のPMFCI (1st Intenational Conference on Precision Measurement and Fundamental constants) および1973年の基礎物理定数の調整以後の主要な問題点を述べ,これに直接関係の深も儲是数および標準の進歩を述べる. 基礎物理定数値がどのように変更されるかの予測は,近く調整が発表されるであろうことから考えて,何も行なわないのが妥当であると考えた.
Laser optical components must exibit a much lower absorption coefficient than normal optical components. Especially, a high power laser system requires very low loss materials because the heat produced by absorbed light causes deformation or damage. The progress in the technique of the small absorption coefficient measurement has contributed to the development of low loss materials. As the surface damage threshold is in certain cases lower than the bulk damage threshold, it is necessary to separate the surface absorption coefficient from the bulk absorption coefficient. The sensitivity of laser calorimetry, which measures the temperature rize of the sample, is directly proportional to laser power. Interferometric laser calorimetry uses an interferometer to measure the optical path length change caused by the temperature rize. This method has the merit of quantitativeness and high sensitivity in separating surface absorption from bulk absorption. We measured absorption coefficients of optical materials; quartz, CaF2 and KCl, and the results are reported.
As is well known, very little research work has heretofore been conducted for developing a high power electric motor driven by an ultrasonic vibration driving system. This paper describes a principle according to which ultrasonic vibration can be converted to rotary movement in one direction, and proves theoretically that our new and unique motor can be operated at a high efficiency. As a result of repeated experiments it was observed that a prototype apparatus in accordance with our energy conversion mechanism generates a uni-directional rotary movement which traces an elliptical track, as expected from our theory. As a typical example, when 28 kHz ultrasonic vibration was converted into uni-directional rotary movement by means of vibratory pieces made of carbon steel which have dimensions of 0.5mm thickness and 5mm width, it was found that 5 W driving power was generated per piece at 80% conversion efficiency.
Pitot's tube anemometer is suitable for the measurement of subsonic wind velocity. The measuring principle of Pitot's tube anemometer is obtained from the Bernoulli theorem for gases under the assumption of an adiabatic reversible process of an ideal gas. Ordinarily, an approximate Mach number M0 is measured by a Pitot's tube anemometer and is expressed as a power function of Mach number M; that is, Mot is expressed as a power series of M2, therefore, a somewhat complicated calculation is needed to obtain M by utilizing M0. In this paper, inversely, Mach number M is directly expressed as a function of the above mentioned M0 obtained experimentally. Accordingly, the calculation to obtain M by measured M0 is tolerably simplified.
The usual Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) measurement suffers from the presence of a steep background due to a secondary electron emission containing low energy Auger electrons. To subtract the background from the AES spectrum in the lower energy region, we have constructed a simple electronic circuit using a Zener-diode as the background function simulator. When the background curve is described as a general energy distribution N(E)=A(E+E0)-m, the Zener-diode can work as its analog function generator giving m=1_??_2. The practical advantages of the background subtraction technique using this simple circuit are demonstrated by its application to the AES measurements of Au and Cr thin films on Si (100) surfaces.
A simple and inexpensive technique for stabilizing a CO2 laser used to optically pump a submillimeter-wave laser is discussed. The technique utilizes variations in the impedance of the laser discharge tube to produce an output power correction. The correction signal is detected synchronously with a mechanical chopper which is put in the laser cavity. It was possible to stabilize the output power of the laser to within ±0.5%/hour which corresponds to a frequency stability of ±0.5 MHz/hour.