An automatic computer controlled LEC growth technique for GaP single crystal has been developed. Large diameter ‹111› and ‹100› oriented GaP crystals of up to 62 mm could be successfully grown by closed-loop control using crystal weighing. In the new automated technique; many growth parameters were measured during growth. The measurements were fed into the computer and processed in real time. The main responsibilities assumed by the computer are: (1) precise correction of weight signal, (2) calculation of phase advance, (3) addition of second differential signals on weight deviation to the diameter control loop, (4) optimum adjustment of growth parameters.
In the present experiments, the electron energy distributions contributing to the L3, 2 Auger electron appearance potential (AEAP) and disappearance potential (DAP) spectra were studied. The specimens were evaporated Ti films, which were exposed up to 150 Langmuir O2, In the case of the virgin surface before the exposuer, the energy value of the L3 dip of AEAP spectrum did not change when the low energy true secondary electrons were removed using retarding potential method. However, after the O2 exposure, shifts of 0.4_??_0.6 eV were observed. The intensity of the L3, 2 DAP spectrum involving inelastically scattered electrons increases more than that of the pure DAP spectrum. The L3 dip of DAP spectrum shifts to the higher energy side after the O2 exposure. The probing depth of AEAP spectroscopy is larger than DAP spectroscopy.
The theoretical treatment presented here provides the elastic coefficients of a quadrilateral of links composed of cylindrical notch flexure hinges cut from a single block of material, which agrees with experimental results on a test piece and is useful for design of various link mechanisms for precision control of the position and orientation in the submicron and submicroradian range. Several examples of important mechanisms are introduced and their elastic coefficients are derived. Furthermore, a simple algorithm for the estimation of elastic coefficients of link mechanism composed of any configuration of flexure hinges is introduced and compared with the treatment on the quadrilateral structure.
The small orifice flowmeter, here reported is designed to measure small flowrates. The diameters of trial orifices are 5.0mm, 2.5mm, 1.5mm respectively. The upstream side of the orifice hole is rounded. The tap of downstream side is made in the orifice plate itself. The experimental results for water and spindle oil show that the trial orifice flowmeters are capable of measurement of small flowrates less than 0.5cm3/s. Such an orifice flowmeter has several advantages, that is, excellent interchangeability, good machinability and constant flow coefficient independent of Reynolds number, for a wide range of flowrates.