The pyrolytic behavior of several phospholipids were studied by thermogravimetry. The samples employed were phosphatidylethanolamines whose acyl chains contained different carbon numbers and degrees of unsaturation, and phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphotidylcholine which were isolated from phospholipids of soybean origin and egg yolk origin. The weight loss of phospholipids in flows of air and nitrogen are ascribed to molecular decomposition which occurred at several steps of reaction. When the phospholipid was composed of unsaturated fatty acids, the weight loss behavior in flow of both atmospheric gasses showed more complicated patterns with an increase in degrees of unsaturation. It might be concluded that their wieght loss was caused by thermal oxidation and polymerization. In the case of phospholipids with different origin, the weight loss behavior in nitrogen flow differed according to polar groups such as ethanolamin or choline which was combined with the phospholipid. On the other hand, the weight loss in air flow differed by fatty acids which constituted the phospholipid.
It has never been tried to form a thin film using a strongly ionized plasma by means of a tokamak device. A TiN thin film formation by a reactive sputtering in the tokamak is reported. The tokamak discharge generates a plasma with a high charged particle density, exceeding 1012 cm-3, under the condition of an extremely low gas pressure of the order of 10-5 Torr. Polycrystalline and nearly stoichiometric f. c. c. TiN films were obtained by this new sputtering device. These films have a resistivity of few tens of It μΩ•cm. The surface morphology is very smooth, and no columnar structure can be seen. Such a smooth surface may come from a shadowing effect or an atomic peening because of the low gas pressure. By reducing the input power, a low density plasma (1011 cm-3 at peak value) with the dominance of molecular ions was obtained. Under this condition, thin films became amorphous. It means that some energetic species play an important role for obtaining a desirable film formation. We also discuss some prospects of other applications of the strongly ionized tokamak plasma to material processing.
The two dimensional velocity field of Bènard convection for variable viscosity fluids with high Prandtl numbers have been measured, using multiple-exposure holographic interferometry in a rectangular box. Convective square cell patterns are observed above the threshold of convection in a layer of a non-Boussinesq fluid with a strongly temperature dependent viscosity surrounded with Plexiglas-side-walls-configuration, in which the thermal conductivity of the lateral boundary walls is smaller than that of the working fluid. Onset of the convection has been studied both in the transition of the velocity field and its planform from an unsteady two dimensional roll convection to a steady three-dimensional square convection. Transcritical bifurcation was induced in the forward process of the hysterisis, while the square pattern was transformed into transverse paralell rolls in the backward process.
The experimental verification of the appearance of bistable domain structure (coexistence of square and roll patterns) in Rayleigh Benard systems is described in the case of large aspect ratio. It has been found that the pattern selection largely depends on the thermal conductivity of the side wall of the container, namely, a square pattern appears on the side wall of plexiglas while a roll pattern appears adjacent to a glass wall, simultaneously. This clearly illustrates a dominant effect of the hybrid horizontal lateral boundary layer instability.