The present study investigated the features of the motivation at return to work in EY (Early Years) through the comparison of the UK & Japan, which had opposite direction in a recent policy reform of EY settings. I set the Five groups of 43 returners (13 Nursery Returners & 5 Other occupations Returners in Japan, 5 Nursery Returners, 6 Other occupations Returners, & 14 Returner applicants in England) and collected interview data. The text mining analysis of each group and compared with them chiefly focused on the words that co-occurred with 'Work', and got to 3 findings about the features of Japanese EY returners; 1. Their priority was their own children, the same as Japanese returners in other occupations. 2. They had an ambivalent attitude for their EY qualification. 3. The ratio of the negative relations between "work/working" and "I/myself" was higher. These tendencies regarded as the relation with the lower-leveled professionalism, and a poorer employment practice in part-time working in Japan EY facilities.
This study aims to examine which aspects of Japanese culture Chinese individuals adopted during their stay overseas and if they retained these cultural qualities after their return. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five Chinese individuals who had stayed in Japan for one to eight years. Each interview lasted between 30 to 90 minutes and took place at X University in China, where returnees from Japan worked as academic staff. The results showed that the individuals acquired aspects of the Japanese culture in three main categories: rules or manners (observation of public rules), ways of communication (respecting other people's intentions), and philosophy of life (orientation toward co-existence with others). It appears that Chinese individuals firmly accepted and later internalized Japanese characteristics that they believed were admirable; therefore, it is believed that returnees retained these qualities even after returning to their original society.
Train drivers must look ahead and react to many kinds of signals or signs when driving a train. We investigated whether they could perceive a visual signal when driving a train in actual setting while paying attention to the ordinary signal. In this experiment, train drivers (N = 41) were asked to blow a whistle as quickly as possible, when they see a target light about 610-720 meters ahead. The target light was set to be seen at 0, 1.8, 3.3 degrees away from an ordinary signal on the rail track. Each driver responded for just one target. There were no missed target errors. However, RTs (Reaction times) analysis indicated that RTs for targets separated by 1.8 and 3.3 from the central vision was significantly longer than those at 0. We concluded that when driving a train, it is hard for drivers to respond to a target that was separated from a focused object and discussed applicability of this result to driving environment and driver's education.
Although there have been some studies on safety culture, studies on specific methods to foster safety culture have been limited. Moreover, it is deemed necessary to assess and foster safety cultures not only for individual organizations but also inter-organizationally. In this study, we developed a program to foster safety culture. Thereafter, we applied the program to multi-tiered industrial organizations. Hence, this paper focuses on interorganizational approaches. The program consisted of multiple questionnaire surveys, interview surveys, group works, and monitoring surveys. The subjects of the surveys were members of energy plants. As a result, in general, improvements in the safety culture evaluation were seen after the implementation of countermeasures. In the program consisting of multiple surveys and activities, a certain effect of fostering safety culture in multi-tiered organizations was recognized. Henceforth, more studies will be required on the means of assessing and fostering safety cultures in multi-tiered industrial organizations of various types.
The present study aimed to explore the important factors related to perceived benefit in daily risk-taking behaviors. A web-based questionnaire survey was conducted for five hundred respondents with a wide range of ages. The list of risk-taking behaviors in daily life was developed by consulting previous studies. The perceived benefit of such behaviors was evaluated using several indicators (e.g. whether the benefit can be obtained with certainty). Results of factor analysis indicated that perceived benefit in risk-taking behavior was mainly evaluated by the intuitive thinking process. Multiple regression analysis also revealed the important effect of such intuitive thinking process on intention of risk-taking. Our research suggested the important components of perceived benefit in risk-taking behaviors. The findings should have also been discussed from the viewpoints of several theories such as the dual process theory used in industrial and social psychology.