The multiplicative ideal theory has been developped for commutative rings. The aim of this paper is to give a semigroup version of the multiplicative ideal theory of commutative rings. In this paper we shall prove some fundamental properties of ideals of G-semigroups. Here we call a torsion-free cancellative abelian additive semigroup with identity a G-semigroup, where G stands for Gilmer. It is expected that the ideal theory of G-semigroups is more simpler than that of commutative rings. But the multiplicative ideal theory of semigroups is itself interesting and important. For the multiplicative ideal theory of rings, we refer to [Gl] and [LM].
This paper describes the theoretical study of the effects of the excess air ratio on the
gas-ingredient concentration of dry products made by hydrocarbon fuel combustion.
The author attempts to employ solid figures, and the ingredient concentration can be expressed in
the form of a performance surface with regard to the burning rate of carbon or hydrogen, fuel com
position and the excess air ratio.
When the previous considerations are applied to this surface, a similar trend can also be revealed
owing to the excess air variation.
In general, the concentration surface of oxygen, nitrogen, or other produced gases gradually
approaches the rich or weak limit plane, as the excess air ratio increases.
The particular lines which are independent of the excess air ratio lie on the nitrogen-specified
plane. That is to say, with variation of feed air, the nitrogen concentration surfaces turn on these
lines as their rotating axes.
Therefore, it should be noted that, on the side of a complete combustion zone, nitrogen
concentration decreases, as the excess air ratio increases. In the case of the carbon educed, this
tendency is evidently observed in the isosceles prismatic figures.
When supply air quantity is scarce, the combustion performance is unexpectedly deteriorated, in
case the method "B" is employed.
When the excess air ratio is less than one, the concentration surface forms can markedly affect
the particular line of nitrogen, and the length included in these surfaces depends upon the value of
the excess air ratio.
Scattering pattern and phase variation from a superconductive sphere (SCS) are
investigated. It is similar to scattering pattern from dielectric sphere when the
temperature of SCS is low than critical temperature. It is equivalent to scattering
pattern from lossy conductive sphere when the temperature of SCS is vicinity of
critical temperature. Phase variation further more depend on the temperature, that
describe scattering pattern from SCS.
The anodic polarization and AC impedance measurements were conducted in 50mol %Na2SO4,-50mol %Li2SO4 molten sulfates for Ni based Al plasma spray coatings at 923-1073K. It was found that the corrosion resistance of Ni based Al plasma spray coatings was very poor. The results obtained from polarization measurement were well correlated with that from AC impedance monitoring. SEM observation showed that accelerated corrosion occurred between coating layer and the Ni substrate. The existence of sulfur was confirmed at coating layer/Ni substrate interface by EDX analysis. The degradation mechanism of Ni baseｄ Al plasma coatings was discussed.