We will invite Dr. Erik Hollnagel to talk about the importance of resilience engineering in safety management. He will present a lecture regarding the past, present and future of safety management based on the new perspective called Safety-II.
Societies have been interested in ‘looks’ since records began, but currently, the emphasis on physical appearance is particularly pervasive. Messages in advertisements, programming in broadcast media and the content of social media feeds suggest to consumers that achieving an appearance close to current ideals will open doors to ‘the good life’. For many, the value placed on outward appearance has become disproportionate to other aspects of self-esteem and self-worth and currently, more than two-thirds of young people and adults in many countries worldwide report significant levels of dissatisfaction （and for many, distress） in relation to their appearance. Research has demonstrated a broad range of negative impacts for large numbers of young people and adults in key areas of living, including psychological wellbeing, physical health, educational, occupational and social functioning. Researchers, health professionals, educationalists and policy makers in many countries consider that appearance dissatisfaction is now a pressing social issue. Key challenges for psychologists working in this field are to find effective ways of ameliorating this distress in individuals and also contributing to efforts to prevent the further spread of appearance dissatisfaction in the general population.
There has been a dramatic growth of interest in the crossmodal correspondences over the last 50 years or so, with the majority of this research having focused on crossmodal associations between stimuli presented in the auditory and visual modalities. While traditionally conceptualized in terms of synaesthesia, there is now an extensive body of scientific evidence demonstrating the existence of audiovisual crossmodal correspondences in the general （i.e., non-synaesthetic population） extending all the way from the perceptual affinity between simple sensory features （such as pitch, hue, size, and shape）, through to the correspondences that many people feel between musical excerpts and paintings, or even artistic/architectural styles. Over the years, a number of explanations have been put forward for the crossmodal correspondences, including the statistically-, structurally-, semantically-/lexically-, and emotionally-mediated accounts. What is more, commentators from diverse theoretical backgrounds have also suggested a physical basis for the mapping between colour and pitch, given the fact that both can be represented on circular dimensions. Certain correspondences may be based on the shared connotative meaning of stimuli as, for example, assessed by means of the semantic differential technique. There may also be a place for ‘stylistic correspondences’ in the case of complex, culturally-meaningful auditory and visual stimuli, such as music, paintings, and architecture. While the existence of audiovisual correspondences has long been of interest to those artists, such as Scriabin and Kandinsky, who were once inspired by the phenomenon of synaesthesia, gaining a better understanding of the robustness and regularity/automaticity of such crossmodal correspondences is becoming especially relevant to those interested in developing more intuitive, and hence hopefully less cognitive-demanding, audiovisual sensory substitution devices for those who may have lost a sense.