This study examined the effects of gender role on mental health through cognitive styles. Scales measuring the cognitive styles of empathizing and systemizing, the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (for mental health) were administered on 981 university students. First, the subscales on cognitive styles were developed. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that cognitive styles functioned as a mediator between gender role and mental health. Gender role positively affected the cognitive styles of both men and women. In both men and women, empathizing, which was mediated by masculinity and femininity, significantly affected mental health, and decreased the risk of mental health problems. Furthermore in women, systemizing, which was mediated by masculinity, or masculinity and femininity, predicted the increase in mental health problems. The performance of systemizing related to gender roles was diversified only in women.
Personality disorder (PD) is characterized by a dysfunction in interpersonal functioning. Thus, the influence of attachment style underlying PDs has been pointed out. Previous studies have revealed the relationship of borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, dependent, and avoidant PDs with maladaptive attachment styles, and its corresponding effects on mental health. However, mediating processes underlying these relationships have not been studied. This study aimed to examine the mediating effects of PDs between maladaptive attachment styles and depression. The participants included 298 undergraduates who completed a questionnaire that included items about borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, dependent, and avoidant PDs, the two dimensions of attachment styles, and depression. The results of an SEM and mediation analysis showed that borderline and avoidant PDs mediated between each maladaptive attachment style and depression. Additionally, it was found that histrionic PD mediated only between the anxious attachment style and depression, and that it suppressed depression.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the seven strategies of proactive socialization tactics and job satisfaction among young full-time workers in Japan. A self-report questionnaire was administered on 168 full-time workers in Japanese organizations, who had graduated in the last five years. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed that “positive framing,” one of the proactive socialization tactics, predicted job satisfaction. It also indicated that, to ensure job satisfaction, young full-time workers tended to select a self-focused strategy as compared to strategies that impacted their environment or other people at the workplace. Perceiving the given situation positively seems to be effective for these young workers' job satisfaction. Longitudinal research is recommended to examine the future outcomes of proactive behaviors.
There are individual variations in the perception and exercise of organizational politics. The former is referred to as “perceptions of organizational politics (POP) ” and the latter is referred to as “political skill (PS).” Self-monitoring is a determining factor in both. However, previous studies showed a good correlation between self-monitoring and PS, but there was no correlation between self-monitoring and POP. Therefore, this study focused on two dimensions of self-monitoring (sensitivity to expressive behavior of others and ability to modify self-presentation) and examined the effect self-monitoring on POP and PS. Participants were 309 permanent employees. Our results showed a positive association between POP and sensitivity to expressive behavior of others and also between PS and the ability to modify self-presentation. These results demonstrate that self-monitoring involves multiple dimensions with reference to the association between self-monitoring and individual variations in organizational politics.
This paper reports the development and validation of a state self-esteem scale based on the Two-Item Self-Esteem Scale (TISE). Participants completed the state self-esteem scale in hypothetical scenarios. The criterion-related validity was confirmed owing to the significantly higher TISE score in a positive situation than in a negative situation for both achievement and affiliation scenarios. The concurrent validity was confirmed by the positive correlations between the TISE and a modified state Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The internal consistency of the TISE was also confirmed. Results showed that the TISE was a useful tool in assessing state self-esteem.
This study developed a Junior High School Students' Version of the Sensory Sensitivity Index (SSSI) to assess the characteristics of sensitive students. Participants included 250 students (119 boys, 112 girls, and 19 not categorized by gender). The results demonstrated that the 12-item SSSI consisted of two factors “Ease of Excitation” and “Environment Change Sensitivity.” The SSSI score was correlated to the Big Five personality traits, and was observed to be higher in left-handed students. Moreover, highly sensitive students (high SSSI score group: 15.2%) exhibited higher sympathy and statetrait anxiety, and more school stressors than did less sensitive students.
One previous study suggested that self-reflection positively affected decentering, but self-rumination negatively affected it. However, the study was cross-sectional, and temporal relationships between the variables were not sufficiently explained. In the present study, we conducted a two-wave longitudinal survey to elucidate the temporal association between self-reflection, self-rumination, and decentering. We found that self-reflection significantly interacted with self-rumination predicting Time 2 decentering after controlling for Time 1 decentering. The test of simple slopes indicated that self-reflection very weakly, but marginally significantly, buffered the negative effect of self-rumination on decentering. This result suggests that self-reflection contributes to maintaining a decentered perspective against facing negative self-discrepancy.
The characteristics of social problem solving and rumination in formerly depressed people were investigated. Based on the results of a self-report measure, the participants were divided into a formerly depressed group that had experienced an episode that met the criteria for major depression (n=14), and a never-depressed group (n=92). The formerly depressed group had higher scores on the Rational Problem-Solving subscale of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version and the Brooding and Reflective Pondering subscales of the Ruminative Responses Scale, after controlling for gender and the current depression level. It is possible that these factors increase the vulnerability to depression.
We investigated the effects of trauma and victimhood (paranoid ideation) on posttraumatic stress response (PTSR) and dissociation in 207 undergraduate students classified into traumatic and non-traumatic stress groups (n=38 and n=169 respectively). The results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that trauma and the frequency of paranoid ideation significantly affected dissociative experiences, that the frequency and distress of paranoid ideation significantly affected PTSR, and that trauma did not significantly affect PTSR. Thus, victimhood may account for severe PTSR caused by mild stress.
We developed a Japanese version of the Trypophobia Questionnaire (TQ-J) that measures proneness to disgust for a cluster of objects. Its validity was examined using discomfort ratings for trypophobic, neutral, and unpleasant images, and assessment of trait anxiety. The TQ-J showed a one-factor structure, and sufficient internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Its strong correlations with discomfort ratings for trypophobic images indicated optimal convergent validity. It did not correlate with ratings for neutral images, and only weakly correlated with ratings for unpleasant ones and trait anxiety; these findings indicated sufficient discriminant validity. Our results confirmed the reliability and validity of the TQ-J.
Cognitive control can help decrease depression. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between individual factors and cognitive control. However, the relationship between social support, which may increase cognitive control, and cognitive control has not been revealed. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between cognitive control and social support. We conducted a questionnaire survey with 171 university students and implemented a covariance structure analysis based on our hypothesis. The results indicated that instrumental support, which is one type of social support, increased cognitive control. This study showed that social support increased cognitive control.