The purpose of this study, which was based on the self-determination theory, was to develop a scale to measure motivation for part-time employment among international students in Japan. In Part I of this study, we asked for responses to 40 items selected in a preliminary survey. The results of a factor analysis indicated that the scale was composed of the following five factors: intrinsic, integrated, identified, introjected, and external regulation. In addition, the correlation analysis among the factors confirmed that the correlation coefficients were highest for types of motivation that were theoretically closest to one another. Furthermore, correlation coefficients for the job satisfaction scale were highest for motivation types with the highest level of self-determination. Part II of this study showed that test-retest reliability was adequate. These results showed that the scale had sufficient reliability and validity and that its score could predict job satisfaction.
This study explored the personality characteristics of dog-lovers and cat-lovers. Participants completed the Big Five Inventory to measure personality of public self, private self, typical dogs, and typical cats, and were asked to indicate their attitudes toward dogs and cats. Results showed that those who preferred cats had more similar personalities to cats than those who did not. In addition, those who had the tendency to keep a dog had less personality differences between public and private self than those who did not, and those who had the tendency to keep a cat had more personality differences between public and private self than those who did not. These findings were discussed in terms of strategies for coping with the expectations of other people.
In this study, the effects of married life situations on generativity and subjective well-being were examined in middle-aged married couples, comparing men and women. Participants were middle-aged men and women with a spouse (362 men and 480 women, aged 40–64). They were inquired about their marital commitment, generativity, and subjective well-being. The results indicated that personal commitment, which is highly correlated with love, increased generativity in men, whereas it increased subjective well-being in women, regardless of generativity. Resigned and instrumental commitment decreased generativity and subjective well-being. Normative commitment increased generativity regardless of gender, and did not affect subjective well-being. It is suggested that the stability of married life might lead to generativity in men. On the other hand, the state of the relationship with the spouse did not affect generativity, but affected subjective well-being in women. Married life is discussed from the perspective of gender differences.
Wells and Matthews proposed the S-REF model to explain the process of inducing anxiety, which expanded the theory of self-focused attention. According to this model, self-esteem can mediate the relationships between anxiety and self-focused attention; however, the relationships among these three variables have never been analyzed simultaneously. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the relationships among anxiety, self-focused attention, and self-esteem. Additionally, this study aimed to construct a model incorporating negative life events and sex differences. Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between anxiety and self-focused attention. Moreover, it has been suggested that negative life events was one of the factors that exacerbated the function of self-focused attention. These results suggest that it is important for therapists to support patients using techniques to improve attentional control, in order to increase their self-esteem.
The aim of this study was to develop Anticipated Behavior Scale for Imaginary Infidelity (ABSII) to assess behaviors predicted in the romantic conflict. Participants were 112 undergraduates who were currently in romantic relationships. They were requested to imagine that they witnessed the situation where their partner was dating a stranger for responding to the ABSII in this study. Five factors of ABSII named “aggression-oriented,” “silence-oriented,” “breakup-oriented,” “conversation-oriented,” and “rival-oriented” were demonstrated as results of exploratory/confirmatory factor analyses. The scales of cognitive appraisal for stressor, stress responses, jealousy, and investment model were employed to check the construct validity of ABSII. The results showed that the importance of conflict related positively with “aggression-oriented” and “conversation-oriented,” and negatively with “silence-oriented,” and the stress responses related positively with “aggression-oriented” and “breakup-oriented.” The general tendency of jealousy related positively with “aggression-oriented” and “rival-oriented,” and relational satisfaction related positively with “conversation-oriented” and negatively with “breakup-oriented.” The construct validity of ABSII was confirmed by these results.
The purpose of this study was to examine the level of sense of coherence (SOC) and its factors in middle aged-women according to their age group: young-middle women (45–54) and old-middle women (55–64). The participants were middle-aged women who live in Tokyo (N=328). Similar to the national average, the old middle-aged women had a significantly higher SOC score than the young middle-aged women. As the result of multiple regression analysis, through middle-aged women “generativity” and “circumstances” were related to SOC. Thus, “the number of opportunities for intergenerational” in the young-middle and “having job or not” in the old-middle women were related to SOC.
The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ: Martin et al., 2003) is a self-report measure to evaluate individual differences in the use of humor styles. The present study investigated the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the HSQ (HSQ-J: Yoshida, 2012). The results of confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency demonstrated adequate fit for a four-factor structure with reliability for each factor. Validity assessment of the HSQ-J indicated that the four humor styles related significantly as predicted to measures of self-esteem, aggression, social skills, and Japanese-derived humor scales. Based on the results, additional cultural considerations were discussed.
The present study aimed to investigate the discriminant predictability of the sense of coherence and the Big Five personality traits based on mental health. A correlation analysis indicated a significant correlation between the sense of coherence and Big Five personality traits. Moreover, hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that the sense of coherence is associated with mental health, even after controlling for the influence of the Big Five personality traits. The results of the present study suggest that consideration of the relation between the sense of coherence and mental health, in isolation from the Big Five personality traits, is worthwhile.
This study examined whether mastery-oriented learners have proper perception of the effectiveness of motivational regulation strategies. Self-reported data on achievement goals and motivational regulation strategies were obtained from 80 university students. First, we confirmed that learners' misperception of effectiveness was an obstacle to proper use of motivational regulation strategies. Thereafter, the results showed that mastery goal orientation was positively related to proper perception of the effectiveness of motivational regulation strategies. These results helped us understand why mastery-oriented learners can use effective motivational regulation strategies.
We examined the relationships between obsessive-compulsive tendencies and reality monitoring error experiences in everyday life in a nonclinical sample. A total of 230 students of a professional training college and a university answered two questionnaires: the Reality-Monitoring Error Experience Questionnaire (RMEEQ) and the Japanese version of the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory. Partial correlation analysis showed that the doubting score was significantly positively correlated with the RMEEQ score when the checking and cleaning scores were controlled. From this result, we inferred that frequent reality monitoring error experiences could induce doubting related to one's own reality monitoring and that doubting could develop into compulsive behavior.
This study investigated the effect of work-family conflict of single mothers on family image and attitude of their adolescent children towards marriage. Participants were 219 pairs of mothers and their adolescent children, and 103 pairs of those were single-mother families. They completed the questionnaire about work-family conflict of mothers and children's family image and hopes about getting married. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that work-family conflict was negatively associated with family image and hopes about getting married among adolescent children in single-mother families. The formation of families of children from single-parent families was discussed.
We examined individuals' free descriptions of their significant others' intentions and affect. Participants were 159 (Analysis 1) and 200 undergraduate students (Analysis 2; data were added to those of Analysis 1), who were asked to read about events involving their significant others and then write about these others' intentions and affect. When the events were positive, we observed no differences in the free description content according to participants' level of reassurance seeking. However, for negative events, we did observe some differences: that is, people with high reassurance seeking tended to infer their significant others to have more univalent affect.