Developments in the assessment of general and maladaptive personality traits in children and adolescents have been reviewed in the present paper, with an emphasis on instruments based on the Five-Factor Model (FFM), such as the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC; Mervielde & De Fruyt, 1999), which describes general traits, and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006), which accounts for maladaptive traits. We have additionally discussed measures available in Japanese, to assess traits in children, adolescents, and adults, and pertaining issues in cross-cultural personality research, especially with respect to Western and Asian differences. Finally, a number of key implementation areas for personality assessment have been identified, together with some challenges for this promising field of research.
This study constructed predictive models of the feelings of kawaii (cuteness) for human and animal babies, animated characters, and inanimate objects using empathy and affiliation motives. A package of questionnaires including the multi-dimensional empathy scale, affiliation motives scale, and kawaii ratings for human babies, baby animals, animated characters, and inanimate objects was administered to 582 undergraduate students. To investigate gender differences in the models, we employed multiple-group structural equation modeling. Results indicated that higher levels of empathy predicted higher kawaii ratings for inanimate objects as well as human and animal babies regardless of the respondent's gender. Higher affiliation motives only predicted higher kawaii ratings for human babies. In contrast, feelings of kawaii for animated characters were not predicted by either of these individual characteristics of empathy or affiliation. The necessity to measure approach motives in addition to affiliation motives as social motives was discussed.
The present study investigated the impact of the relationships among self-perception, sense-of-rejection, and concern regarding others' ratings in individuals with borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, dependent, and avoidant personality disorder traits (PDTs). Undergraduates (N=362) completed a questionnaire. The results of covariance structure analyses indicated that the sense-of-acceptance partially mediated the relationships between PDTs and self-perception, and that self-perception partially mediated the relationship between PDTs and the sense-of-acceptance or rejection. On the other hand, low sense-of-acceptance mediated between PDTs and negative social motivation. These results suggest that the sense-of-acceptance and sense-of-rejection are constructs located on different dimensions that are independent, and differentially affect social cognition and social motivation in individuals with PDTs. Additionally, individuals with high PDTs demonstrated higher negative social motivation, which was contrary to the self-enhancement motive. A low sense-of-acceptance and negative social motives are strongly associated with maladaptive interpersonal interactions in individuals with PD traits.
We investigated why implicit and explicit measures of romantic fantasy (RF) were not correlated with each other. The participants were female college students, 65 in Study 1 and 73 in Study 2. We assessed (a) their implicit RF using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), and two explicit measures of RF, namely the participants' romantic perception of their actual partner (b), and their romantic perception of their ideal partner (c). We also assessed social desirability (d), and some other variables (e). Self-report questionnaires were used to measure the variables of (b) to (e). The results showed that implicit RF was significantly and positively correlated with explicit RF which assessed representations of ideal partners (c), but was not correlated with explicit RF which assessed their romantic perception of their actual partners (b). The findings suggest that implicit and explicit RFs had been dissociated because the IAT assessed representations of ideal partners, rather than of actual partners.
This study developed the Multi-dimensional Privacy Scale (MPS), designed for the multidimensional assessment of information privacy, and evaluated its validity and reliability. Undergraduate students (N=371: 124 men, 247 women) completed a questionnaire. Factor analysis of the responses revealed six dimensions of concerns about individuals' information privacy: Likings (6 items), Past and Recent Experiences (6 items), Belongings (6 items), Addresses (3 items), Appearance Characteristics (4 items), and Value Judgments (4 items). The reliability of the scale was examined by calculating the alpha coefficients and the test-retest reliability correlations. The validity of the scale was assessed by examining the relationships of the MPS to privacy preferences and self-disclosure tendencies. The results showed that the MPS had sufficient validity and was highly reliable.
There has been little study about the relation between attachment and conscious self-image, despite that fact that Bowlby gave attention to “the working model of self” based on attachment experiences. The present study is an explanatory examination of the relation between attachment styles and the components and structures of the self-image. The Twenty Statement Test and the Japanese version of the Relationship Questionnaire were used as the measures of self-image and attachment styles, respectively. Data from 277 graduate and undergraduate students were analyzed by text mining. The results supported the hypotheses. Secure individuals tended to have a social and positive self-image. Dismissing individuals tended to have a defensive and positive through something around themselves self-image, while preoccupied individuals tended to have a negative self-image based on their ambivalent human relations. The fearful tended to have a self-image corresponding to their human relations and their ability. The psycho-dynamics of each attachment style's self-image were discussed.
We examined the effects of altruism in daily life and the Big Five personality traits on professional hospitality. A web-based survey was conducted with 208 participants (ages in the 20's to 50's) who have been engaged in hospitality industries. We conducted multiple regression analyses to infer the effects of altruism toward different types of recipients and Big Five traits on scores from the Japanese-style hospitality scale. The results indicated that altruism toward family members and friends/acquaintances significantly affected hospitality. On the other hand, altruism toward strangers did not affect hospitality. The influence of the Big Five traits differed according to the factors of the hospitality scale.
This study developed a Japanese version of the Academic Delay of Gratification (ADOG) Scale, based on the original language scale created by Zhang, Maruno, Karabenick, and Lauermann (2011), and investigated its reliability and construct validity. Japanese undergraduates (N=394) completed the new scale. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a one-factor structure. The students' ADOG score correlated positively with effortful academic behavior, use of metacognitive strategies, planned studying and the average of weekly study time, and negatively correlated with less sustained studying. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the scale were confirmed.