Locus of control has been found to be associated with a number of problems in health and behaviors of children. Although there are a few standardized questionnaires for children to measure it, they are not without shortcomings that make interpretation of results ambiguous. So in the present study, a new standardized scale for external locus of control (GEQC) was developed for Japanese children, aged between the 4th and the 6th grades. In Study 1, the new questionnaire was administered to children of the age (n=466) to investigate its factor structure. As a result, it was found that one factor could be measured with 16 items. In Study 2, the questionnaire was administered to children of the age (n=1,349) and some of their classroom teachers nominated children that typically characterize external control, and some children rated their classmates on the same dimension. In addition, in order to check its reliability, it was administered twice, separated by about five weeks, to some of the children (n=205). Thus, in this study, reliability and validity of the questionnaire were investigated. Results showed that it was reliable and internally consistent, and showed concurrent validity.
This study investigated the reliability and validity of Japanese revised version of 12 item reassurance-seeking scale. In study 1, 123 undergraduates were asked to complete a questionnaire that included the reassurance-seeking scale, a depression scale, and self-esteem scale. Results showed that reassurance-seeking scale had 2 factors: reassurance-seeking from significant others and interpersonal/cognitive/behavioral factor to seek reassurance. Also the scale had a positive correlation with depression and a negative correlation with self-esteem. In study 2, 397 students participated in a questionnaire study to investigate correlational validity and test-retest reliability of the scale. Results indicated that it again consisted of 2 factors, and that reassurance-seeking correlated with trait-anxiety, need for rejection avoidance, and evaluations by close friends. Implications for future studies of the effects of reassurance-seeking on mental health were discussed.
Previous studies have shown that the Internet can develop new interpersonal relationships. But few studies have examined the quality of these relationships, in terms of whether or not they lead to life satisfaction and social efficacy. To examine the effect of the Internet use on life satisfaction and social efficacy as a function of the number of cyber relationships, we conducted a panel study of 173 male students. Results indicated that the use of both synchronous and asynchronous Internet tools increased the number of cyber relationships. The use of synchronous tools increased life satisfaction if the number of opposite-sex of cyber-friends increased. The use of synchronous tools increased social efficacy as the number of acquaintances and cyber-friends of same sex increased, and the use of asynchronous tools increased social efficacy in proportion to the number of acquaintances. Finally, the use of synchronous tools had direct negative effects on life satisfaction and social efficacy.
The present study defined the perfectionism cognition as thought that had become conscious through activated perfectionist self-schema (Self-Oriented Perfectionism) and that would affect the person's attention and appraisal of life events. Based on this definition, we developed Multidimensional Perfectionism Cognition Inventory (MPCI) Study 1 examined the factor structure of MPCI and found three factors: personal standards, concern over mistakes, and pursuit of perfection. The factor-subscales showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Study 2 looked at concurrent and correlational validity of MPCI.
The purpose of this study was to examine subjective adjustment in university students from the viewpoint of person-environment fit using PAC (Personal Attitude Construct) analysis. Two university students (1 male and 1 female) participated in this research. While one was adjusted to university environment (Subject A), the other was not (Subject B). By comparing the results of two cases, the difference in construct of subjective adjustment and meaning of subjective adjustment was found. In the case of Subject A, it was interpreted that she found positive meaning in university environment and was satisfied with it. In the case of Subject B, it was interpreted that he didn't found positive meaning in university environment and wasn't satisfied with it. There was no particular personal character which promoted their adjustment, and the value of personal character was determined by its relation with the environment. It was thought that the relationship between person and environment determined their adjustment. Finally, from the viewpoint of person-environment fit, the necessity of the research concerning adjustment was discussed.
A type A behavior pattern (type A) scale was administered to 189 Japanese students, between the 7th and 9th grades, along with a questionnaire measuring motivation for learning and study time. Factor analysis of the motivation for learning scale found three subscales; internal, career, and external motivation. Correlation coefficients were calculated among the type A scale and the three subscales. While the correlation between type A and internal motivation and career motivation were relatively high in the 7th grade, there were no significant correlation among type A and three subscales in the 8th grade. A significant, moderately high correlation was found between type A and external motivation in 9th grade. As for study time, it was shorter at the 8th than the 7th grade, and recovered at the 9th grade; the pattern was stronger especially for non-type A students. In case of type A students, however, study time remained relatively high at the 8th grade, and then increased at the 9th grade.
The aim of this study was to develop Information-Processing Style Inventory (IPSI), which measured individual differences in rational and intuitive thinking (Pacini & Epstein, 1999). In Study 1 (N=290), a confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the factorial validity of 38-item IPSI. Results confirmed that IPSI consisted of two factors; rationality and intuition. IPSI also had acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results of correlational analyses with other scales (ambiguity tolerance, theory orientation, self-esteem, and social desirability) showed high discriminant and convergent validity for IPSI. In Study 2 (N=237), IPSI scores and probability-reasoning performance were examined to assess its construct validity. Results indicated that both rationality and intuition explained frequencies of corresponding reasoning error. In Study 2, a 24-item short version of IPSI was also developed and its reliability and validity were examined.
The purpose of this study was to make a comprehensive investigation of the personality and sociocultural factors that affect eating disorders. A total of 321 adolescent and young adult females completed a questionnaire which included questions about thinness-oriented culture and sense of gender roles in order to examine sociocultural factors. Also, for analysis of personality factors, the questionnaire asked about self-esteem and interdependent self-concept. Results of the questionnaire supported the following hypotheses: Interdependent self-contrual with excessive emphasis on adjusting oneself to the sociocultural standards lowered self-esteem and tended to cause eating disorder symptoms. These results also supported the notion that sociocultural factors such as thinness-oriented culture and gender roles affected eating disorder symptoms, and that personality factors that would make the person vulnerable to the effects of sociocultural factors could also be examined empirically.
A Japanese version of Thought-Shape Fusion Scale (TSFS) that assesses cognitive distortions associated with eating pathology was developed. This distortion is said to occur when merely thinking about eating a forbidden food increases the person's estimate of their shape and weight, elicits a perception of moral wrongdoing and makes the person feel fat (Shafran et al., 1999). Japanese participants (n=342) completed the Japanese version of the TSFS, along with Japanese version of Thought–Action Fusion Scale, which already had reliability and validity data, several subscales of Eating Attitude Test, Eating Disorder Inventory, and Self-rating Depression Scale. Results confirmed that Japanese version of the TSFS had good reliability and construct validity. It was concluded that the scale was a useful tool for investigating eating related cognitions in Japanese people.