The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between irrational belief and style of feelings experience as aspects of personality. In this study, we looked at the quality of emotional experiences and defined someone who had rich and full emotional experiences as high on feelings experience style. Our hypothesis was: The higher the tendency to have irrational beliefs, the lower the feelings experience style. In a preliminary study with 97 undergraduates, a scale of full feelings experience style was developed. Through factor analysis, Feelings Experience Scale (FES) was found to have three factors: Control, Respect, and Superiority of feelings. We then investigated the relationship between the tendency to have irrational beliefs and FES with 126 undergraduates. The correlation coefficient between irrational belief scale and FES was negative and statistically significant, although the correlation was not very strong. Specifically, those who were high on self-denying irrational beliefs were low on Control of feelings. Finally, we discussed the importance and implications of feelings experience style, distinguishing those who did not get involved in or suppressed their own feelings and those who fully experienced and embraced them.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between delusion-like ideation and coping strategy in college students, using covariance structure analysis of panel data. First, it was demonstrated that delusion-like ideation was frequently experienced among college students. Second, it was hypothesized that avoidant coping strategy would increase distress of delusion-like ideation, and that planning problem-solving coping would reduce distress of delusion-like ideation. The two hypotheses were tested with a reciprocal effect model. Peters et al. Delusions Inventory and Stress Coping Inventory were administered twice at a month interval to 318 college students. A large majority (95.3%) of the participants had experienced delusion-like ideation. Covariance structure analysis was performed on data of 186 students who experienced such ideation during the interval. A reciprocal effect model with instrumental variables revealed that avoidant coping would increase distress of delusion-like ideation, although planning problem-solving coping was not shown to reduce it.
Resilience is a psychological trait that enables individuals to maintain psychological well-beings following experience of hardship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between resilience and personality traits, together with relevant gender differences, in junior high school students. Resilience Scale (RS) and Junior Temperament and Character Inventory, based on Cloninger's seven-factor model of temperament and character, were administered to 905 students. An exploratory factor analysis of RS yielded three factors: positive activity, self-disclosure, and optimism. For boys, self-directedness and cooperativeness had a positive correlation with positive activity, and cooperativeness with self-disclosure. Meanwhile, a positive correlation was found for girls between self-directedness and positive activity, and between reward dependence and self-disclosure, but harm avoidance had a negative correlation with optimism.
This study examined validity of the theoretical assumption that adult attachment researchers have implicitly held: Adult attachment styles reflected corresponding patterns of attachment behavior in adults. A questionnaire, including adult attachment style scales and Adult Attachment Behavior Scale, which we developed for this study, was administered to 378 undergraduates. Main findings were as follows: When adult attachment behavior was classified into Direct type, which expressed security seed directly, and Indirect type, which expressed security need indirectly, due to over-preoccupation with appropriate adjustment of psychological distance between self and others, low Avoidance participants engaged more frequently in Direct attachment behavior, whereas high Anxiety participants engaged more frequently in Indirect behavior. These results were also found in the analysis using 4-category attachment styles. The findings were interpreted to demonstrate validity of the implicit assumption described above.
Extreme response style (ERS) is the tendency to use frequently extreme alternatives of a rating scale for any specific item content. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between ERS and individualism-related traits including individualism orientation and need for uniqueness. The results showed that, although the coefficient of correlation was not high but significant, ERS correlated positively with “free-spirit,” a sub-trait of need for uniqueness. As with previous studies, ERS also correlated with playfulness of Five-Factor Personality Questionnaire (FFPQ), and specifically with “fugue,” a sub-trait of playfulness. Based on these results, we discussed Tsujimoto's (2003) suggestion for the relationships between ERS and individualism orientation facet of playfulness.
An increasing number of studies, inspired by Positive Psychology movement, have focused on the roles positive affect (PA) plays. The present article, first of all, sought to clarify some of the problems concerning definition and measurement of PA. Specifically, it was emphasized that many types of PA remained unexamined, and that measurement accuracy of existent scales was very low. Secondly, in comparison with the roles of negative affect (NA), a number of benefits produced by PA were reviewed in such broad domains as cognition, information processing, health, social relations, and so on. In doing so, considerable thought has gone into analyzing previous inconsistencies in PA and NA findings, so that consistent notions concerning both affects may become possible. Lastly, the present article elucidated several hypothetical mechanisms underlying the benefits. Throughout this article, the author considered crucial problems underlying this broad-range research, which could simultaneously suggest future studies that were especially needed. It was suggested that the future studies would mainly consist of cultural differences and intervention.