The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among early adult attachment styles, emotional regulation, and interpersonal stress coping. In Study 1, the relationship between early adult attachment styles and emotional regulation was examined with 460 undergraduates. Results showed that secure attachment was positively related to emotional expression and sensitivity, but ambivalent attachment was negatively related to them. Also, analysis concerning attachment dimensions revealed that Anxiety was significantly associated with low emotional sensitivity, and Avoidance with low emotional expression. In addition, an interaction of Anxiety and Avoidance was associated with emotional control: it could be explained by Avoidance in cases of low Anxiety. In Study 2, the relationship between early adult attachment styles and interpersonal stress coping was examined with 393 participants. Results showed that secure attachment was positively related to positive relationship-oriented strategies, negatively related to negative relationship-oriented strategies, and insecure attachment, on the other hand, was positively related to negative relationship-oriented strategies. As for attachment dimensions, Anxiety appeared to have an influence on negative relationship-oriented strategies and postponed-solution coping, and Avoidance on positive relationship-oriented strategies. These results were discussed in terms of conceptual consistency in infant and early adult attachment styles.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of discussion to decide social rules on attitudes of undergraduates. Participants were first asked to indicate how bad they individually thought was the behavior that ignored a social rule, and wrote reasons for their judgment. Then half of them were told that everyone in the local community participated in the discussion to make it as the community rule, while the others were told that the community simply made it for members to follow. They were asked to make judgment on legitimacy of the rule. In Study 1, two groups were not significantly different in their judgment. In Study 2, conditions of perspective-taking and bottom-up procedure were added, and the participants in a discussion group thought that rule-making was more justifiable than those in a control group where the leader made the rule, if others' opinions, for and against making the rule, were shown, and the community was supposedly started anew. The difference was statistically significant, regardless of which domain that the participants thought the judgment pertained to: moral, conventional, personal, personal-moral, or contextually-conventional. In Study 3, half of participants actually had a discussion with another, and again those in the discussion group agreed more that the rule-making was justifiable, replicating the results of Study 2.
This study developed Japanese version of Effortful Control (EC) scale for adults, and examined its reliability and validity. In Study 1, a questionnaire survey of 209 college and vocational school students showed sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the scale. Its correlational validity was also shown in terms of the relationships with novelty seeking, harm avoidance, Five-Factor personality dimensions, depressive mood, and state anxiety. Study 2 was conducted to show that the EC scale measured not only self-concept but also actual executive attention function. Forty-seven undergraduates who participated in Study 1 performed a Stroop task, and the relation between magnitude of interference effect and EC scale score was examined. The EC scale as well as its two subscales was negatively correlated with the magnitude, indicating criterion-related validity of the scale.
There is a thesis that social anxiety is a uniquely Japanese characteristic, influenced by their culture. This study examined the thesis by conducting a cross-cultural study of Japanese and Korean students. A questionnaire was administered to 272 Korean and 250 Japanese undergraduates. A causal model concerning social anxiety was examined through analysis of covariance structure of the following three main factors: identity, public self-consciousness, and interdependent self. Results showed that there were differences in the strength of the three factors that affected social anxiety. Additionally, social anxiety of Japanese students was higher than that of Korean students, possibly because of cultural differences between the countries. However, the path diagram of the three factors affecting social anxiety was essentially the same. The result suggested that social anxiety was not a unique tendency of Japanese consciousness in their culture, but a common phenomenon found in Korean culture as well.
The aim of this study, based on the resilience perspective, was to investigate the effects of interpersonal stressful events (vulnerability factors) and coping styles (protective factors) on adjustment of young adults with a personal history of peer victimization during childhood. Participants were 301 Japanese young adults with a mean age of 19.7 years (SD=1.29). A questionnaire was administered, which included questions concerning memories of peer victimization during childhood, as well as three self-rating scales involving interpersonal stressful events, coping styles, and depression and anxiety. Results suggested that compared with non-victimized controls, young adults with a personal history of peer victimization during childhood had more problem adapting, although no difference was found in the levels of exposure to current interpersonal stressful events. This tendency was stronger for men than women, and the starting age of victimization made no difference in the adaptation problem. Results also showed that both problem-focused and support-seeking coping as a protective factor had a compensatory effect for long-term negative outcomes of victimization by peers during childhood.
Previous studies showed that the Internet could have both negative and positive psychological effects, such as negative ones on loneliness and positive ones on social support. But most studies so far were conducted for adults, and there were few studies for children. To examine the effects of Internet use on children's loneliness and social support, we conducted a panel study of 298 junior high school students. The effects of Internet use were examined for each Internet tool and each purpose. As a result, Internet use was found to have positive effects on the students: frequent e-mail use reduced loneliness in friendships, and longer Internet use increased social support from cyber-friends and off-line friends. Especially, longer Internet use in many tools and purposes increased social support from cyber-friends.
The purpose of this study was to develop a scale measuring narcissistic vulnerability from the viewpoint of Kohut's self psychology. It was assumed that narcissistic vulnerability could be measured through the following five indications: hypersensitivity to approval/admiration, covert sense of entitlement, inhibition of self-exhibition, insufficiency of self-soothing, and insufficient sense of purpose. Factor analysis on preliminary 52 items yielded five factors corresponding to the above indications. The 40 items selected through the factor analysis were grouped into five subscales, the whole of which was named Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale (NVS). Narcissistic vulnerability as measured by NVS was found to be positively correlated with hypervigilant type of narcissism. On every subscale of NVS, respondents scoring high exhibited greater intensity of anxiety and stronger depressive tendency than those scoring low. Patients with mental disorder showed higher scores than normal individuals on all subscales of NVS.
This study used a questionnaire to examine the influence of intensifiers on perceived deceptiveness of written messages. It was predicted that a verbal message including an intensifier would be perceived more deceptive than one without an intensifier. To test this prediction, two types of messages were constructed: a group of three messages including intensifiers and a group of three messages without ones. Before administering the questionnaire, the computer program “GPOWER” was used to obtain the appropriate sample size. Participants were 202 undergraduate women, who were assigned to one of the two types of messages. They were asked to rate perceived deceptiveness, using a seven-point rating scale. Contrary to expectations, perceived deceptiveness was not influenced by the intensifiers. In addition, weak negative correlations were found between perceived deceptiveness and General Trust Scale. The implications of the findings are discussed.
In this study, friendship motivation scale was developed in the framework of the self-determination theory, and its reliability and validity examined. Following previous studies, we expected four subscales: external, internalized, identified, and intrinsic reasons. Validity of the scale was examined through confirmatory factor analysis, intercorrelations among subscales, and their correlations with other scales. Alpha coefficients and test-retest correlations were calculated to study the reliability of the scale. Also, the relationship between friendship motivation and prosocial behavior toward friends was examined. Results showed that the degree of self-determined motivation predicted the amount of prosocial behavior, and the relation between motivation and prosocial behavior was stronger in men than women. These results showed that the friendship motivation scale had sufficient reliability and validity, and its score was able to predict prosocial behavior toward friends.
The purpose of this study was to identify issues in personality psychology education, and explore the paths we were to take. It was found, in our questionnaire study of the members of Japan Society of Personality Psychology, that only 53% teach personality psychology, and only 63% took a course in the field of psychology during their undergraduate education. While some wrote that teaching personality psychology with other related fields of psychology was effective and recommended, others indicated their dissatisfaction in the fact that personality psychology was not fully established as a field of its own. Based on the survey results as well as the discussions at the society's annual meeting, we would like to suggest the following: (1) Introductory personality psychology could be taught as a course that facilitates self understanding. (2) It could be an excellent introductory course to the whole fields of academic psychology. (3) Teaching various personality theories in an upper-level course could contribute to establishment of the discipline's identity, at the same time to promotion of interdisciplinary studies around personality psychology. And (4) such an upper-level course has the role as the basis for clinical psychology and industrial and organizational psychology. Toward these goals, personality psychology theories that incorporate interpersonal relationship as well as social situation and environment are especially valuable for the education of personality psychology.