Using confirmatory factor analysis, a new scale was constructed with data from 628 university students. It had 72 items for 12 situations to measure 6 self-conscious emotions: feeling of interpersonal indebtedness, personal distress, shame, guilt, role taking, and empathic concern. Reliability of the scale, KA-JiKoKan-12, in terms of alpha and test-retest reliability coefficients was sufficiently high. Correlation coefficients with related scales of guilt situation, situational shame, interpersonal reactivity index, and psychological indebtedness, as well as behavior-related scales of aggressiveness and prosocial behavior were also high, indicating validity of the new scale. Finally, issues concerning construction of a situation-based scale, characteristics of emotions measured by the scale, and issues of discriminant validity were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that personality characteristics, pubertal development, and negative life events had on depression in early adolescence. A total of 518 adolescents completed a questionnaire, which included pubertal development scale (PDS), the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), and scales for negative life events and depression. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed Harm Avoidance of JTCI and disliking of peer-related negative life events contributed to prediction of depression. The interaction of Harm Avoidance and disliking of negative life events on depression was such that those high on the personality characteristic (temperament dimension) of Harm Avoidance had significantly higher depression scores than the low, if they had experienced more negative life events. In addition, girls' pubertal development scale (PDS) and depression scores had a weak positive correlation: the more developed, the more depressed. No such correlation was found for boys' PDS and depression scores.
Reports concerning aggression of people who have fearful attachment style have been inconsistent. Some noted higher aggression of the fearful, but others reported aggression no higher than those of other attachment styles. The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility that aggression of the fearful was repressed, and that self-defensive aspect of aggression in particular was implicated. The Picture Frustration Study (P-F Study) and Japanese version of Relationship Questionnair (RQ) were used as the measures of aggression and attachment styles, respectively. Data from 206 women, graduate and undergraduate students, were analyzed. Results showed that the fearful repressed aggression at the latent level, and they repressed self-defensive aspect of aggression more than other attachment styles. It was argued that inconsistency in previous studies stemmed from examining different aspects or phases in repression of aggression.
Since a new construct, assumed competence based on undervaluing others, was proposed by Hayamizu et al. (2003), the relationship between the construct and emotions has been examined. In the present study, we aimed at making clear how assumed competence affected beliefs about learning and learning motivation, with the data from 398 senior high school students. By combining the tendency to undervalue others and level of self-esteem, we classified the participants into four competence types: omnipotence, self-esteem, assumption, and atrophy. The participants also completed scales of beliefs about learning and learning motivation. Main results were as follows: Assumed competence correlated negatively with emphasis on the amount of studying, and those classified as assumption type tended to have higher external and introjected motivation and lower identified and intrinsic motivation than self-esteem type, whereas those of atrophy type had generally lower motivation than other types.
Main purposes of this study were to construct object relations scale for young adults, and to examine validity of the scale. In Study 1, factor analysis on the data of 566 participants found five factors: insufficiency of intimacy, superficiality in interpersonal relations, egoistic manipulation, excessive need for identification, and abandonment anxiety. They had a simple structure with a total of 29 items. In Study 2, validity of the scale was examined with a new sample of 1041 participants. Data analysis showed validity in terms of the factor structure of the subscales, and gender and age differences found in them were in the expected patterns. The relationship to personality traits was examined with five factor scores of NEO-FFI. By and large, the correlation coefficients between the subscales and five factor scores were in the expected directions, indicating correlational validity of the scale.
The purpose of this study was to assess the association between relational and overt forms of peer victimization and loneliness in 5-year-old children. In Study 1, for 126 children, a teacher rating measure was used to assess peer victimization, and loneliness scale was used to assess children's self-report of feeling of loneliness. For data analysis, the children were divided according to the scores on victimization into four groups: overt victims, overt and relational victims, relational victims, non-victims. Results indicated that relational victims and overt and relational victims were significantly lonelier than overt victims and non-victims. In Study 2, observations were made in classroom and playground during free play periods. Several aspects of their interactive behavior were coded using the categories of BOR. Main results were that relational victims tended to respond in many cases with such an unnatural manner as smile, even when they were aggressed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between status of problem students in their classroom and classroom disruption. Scales that measured status of problem students in their classroom, experience of problem behavior, classroom disruption, and image of problem students were administered to 645 junior high school students, 310 boys and 335 girls. First, we examined whether problem students were rejected or accepted in their classroom. Results showed that problem students were not always rejected. Second, the difference between the classrooms where problem students were rejected and where they were accepted was examined. As a result, it was found that the classrooms where problem students were accepted were more disrupted and had an atmosphere that supported the behavior of problem students. Finally, future directions of problem behavior research were discussed.
In Japan, many researchers have studied narcissistic personality using Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI: Raskin & Hall, 1979; Emmons, 1984); however, different response formats were used and inconsistent factors found by different researchers. We tried to develop a new Japanese version of NPI, after the inventory by Raskin and Terry (1988). In Study 1, we explored internal structure of the scale through factor analysis, and found five factors: need for attention, sense of grandeur, leadership, praise for the body, and self conviction. We named it Narcissistic Personality Inventory-35 (NPI-35). In Study 2, the five factors found in Study 1 were verified by confirmatory factor analysis on the data of another sample. Study 3 showed that NPI-35 had sufficient test-retest reliability. Finally, in Study 4, we investigated validity in terms of the correlations between NPI-35 and NPI-Short version (Oshio, 1998), exhibitionism scale (Edwards, 1953), praise seeking scale (Sugawara, 1986), and self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965). It was demonstrated that the full-scale NPI-35 and its component scales had good correlational validity.