The purpose of the present research was to investigate the relationship among social responsibility goals, feelings of school adjustment, and academic motivation. We looked at two different subordinate social responsibility goals: compliance and prosocial goals. One hundred and fifty-seven elementary school children and seventy junior high school students completed a questionnaire. In order to examine the relationships among variables, covariance structure analysis was conducted. Results showed that compliance goal was positively associated with teacher adjustment. Prosocial goal was positively associated with friend and teacher adjustment. And teacher adjustment was positively associated with academic motivation and academic adjustment.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among autonomous friendship motivation, self-disclosure to friends, and adjustment. Junior high school students, 430 in all, participated in the study. Results showed that intrinsic motivation was associated with superficial disclosure, and identification and external motivation with internal disclosure. In addition, intrinsic motivation and internal disclosure predicted better adjustment. It was suggested that internal disclosure mediated the relationship between identification motivation and adjustment, and that intrinsic motivation was associated with adjustment directly.
This study examined the relationship of assertive behavior and taijin-kyofu, which is a social phobic tendency. Three hundred sixty six (366) undergraduates answered a questionnaire that included Rathus assertiveness schedule and scales of taijin-kyofu and praise seeking and rejection avoidance needs. Results of path analysis were consistent with the model that taijin-kyofu was strongly associated with less frequent assertive behavior, and that rejection avoidance was weakly associated with it. On the other hand, praise seeking was associated with more assertive behavior. Clinical implications of the results were discussed.
Greater self-complexity has been suggested as a protective factor for people under stress (Linville, 1985). Two different measures have been proposed to assess individual self-complexity: Attneave's H statistic (1959) and a composite index of two components of self-complexity (SC; Rafaeli-Mor et al., 1999). Using mood-incongruent recall, i.e., recalling positive events while in negative mood, the present study compared validity of the two measures through reanalysis of Sakaki's (2004) data. Results indicated that H statistic did not predict performance of mood-incongruent recall. In contrast, greater SC was associated with better mood-incongruent recall even when the effect of H statistic was controlled.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate age differences in narcissistic tendency during adolescence. Narcissistic tendency of 489 participants, junior and senior high school students and college undergraduates, was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Short Version (NPI-S). Results showed an increase in the tendency along with the age, but no significant difference was found between boys and girls. However, detailed examination revealed different patterns of developmental changes over time in subscales of NPI-S, and therefore further examination of age differences in them appeared to be necessary.
The present study examined the relationship between schizotypy and integration of audio-visual information. Schizotypy may be characterized as predisposition to schizophrenia. The disconnection hypothesis explains schizophrenia as a disorder resulting from the failure of proper functional integration in the brain. People with schizotypal traits may also have deficits on information integration of different functions. A study of dynamic-ventriloquism, which requires integration of information from different modalities, indicated that high schizotypal participants were less affected by visual information. Results of the present study therefore suggested that people with schizotypal traits had difficulties in information integration.
The purpose of this study was to construct a short form for young adults that measured their social phobic tendency and narcissistic personality in the two dimensional model. The scale consisted of ten items each for the two dimensions, which made it easy to classify them into personality subtypes. Analyses of the data from 305 students showed that the factor structure of the scale was sound, and that the two subscales had sufficiently high internal consistency. We would need next to study correlational data with other psychological scales.
This study investigated the time course of selective attention to socially threatening and positive words with a modified dot-probe task. Twenty-one college students responded to targets following a pair of either socially threatening and neutral words or socially positive and neutral words, shown for the duration of 250, 500, 750 or 1000 ms. Results showed that the students attended more away from socially threatening words at 250 ms, but at 750 ms they attended more to socially threatening words. Also, at 250 ms, the lower their trait social anxiety, the more they attended away from socially threatening words.
Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has changed psychological investigation drastically in two ways. First, SEM serves not only as a statistical technique for estimating descriptive statistics and testing causal model hypotheses, but also as a powerful tool to check validity of a theory or even to construct a new theory. Second, thanks to SEM, researchers have begun to think of constructing large-scale and systematic research projects in order to benefit from the advantages of SEM. SEM is, however, not a theory itself, but a tool for theory construction. It is researchers' critical thinking that tests and evaluates a theory. Close collaboration of researchers and statisticians in a research project is desirable, or even necessary.
The essential purpose of life-span developmental psychology is to describe and explicate the intra-individual continuity or change in human development. Yet, truly empirical studies are only emerging. In that sense, planning of this special issue was especially timely, and the three papers of high value, not only as an introduction of methodology to analyze developmental process and mechanism, but also as a guide to indicate possible future research designs and styles in developmental psychology. Although SEM is a very useful tool, without adequate review of theoretical issues, it could possibly churn out meaningless results. We need detailed theoretical investigation and hypothetical thinking before data collection and analysis, and have to check results against the reality and evaluate effect sizes in order to interpret findings correctly.
General growth mixture modeling (GGMM) was briefly reviewed and its merits for the researchers who aim to conduct a longitudinal study discussed. The GGMM refers to modeling with categorical latent variables that represent subpopulations where population membership is not known but is inferred from the data (Muthén & Muthén, 2004). Latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and growth mixture modeling (GMM), which are submodels of GGMM, were applied to a single data set in this paper to examine development of antisocial behavior in children. Finally, the data analytical package sem developed by Fox (2006) was introduced, and an example for latent growth curve modeling with time invariant predictors described.