This study explored the characteristics of friendship, adaptation, and self images in contemporary young adults. The following variables were examined in this study: friendship style, narcissistic and borderline personality tendencies, self esteem, and self images including real and ideal selves. Cluster analysis was used to find their friendship styles. Results showed that those who had intimate friendship style were better adapted: they were low in pathology in terms of narcissistic and borderline personality tendencies, and high in self esteem. Also, the size of discrepancy between real and ideal self images concerning their social interaction with others had a negative correlation with self esteem. In contrast, those who were high on the characteristics of contemporary friendship style were less well adapted, and discrepancy between self images concerning their appearance, daily activity, and social interaction had a negative correlation with self-esteem, but discrepancies concerning their psychological domain had no correlation with self esteem.
The possible link between narcissism and social phobia has traditionally been discussed among clinical psychologists and psychiatrists in Japan. To examine the possibility, we hypothesized that dissociated and unstable self-concept was at the basis of both narcissistic personality and social phobia. A questionnaire was administered to 341 undergraduates, which included scales of positivity, dissociation, and instability of self- concept, as well as narcissistic and social phobic tendencies. Evaluative discrepancy between images of perceived self in positive and negative hypothetical situations was used as an index of the dissociation. Results suggested that positivity of self-concept had a negative correlation with social phobic tendency and a positive one with narcissistic tendency. In contrast, dissociation and instability of self-concept had a positive correlation with some subscales of the two tendencies. The role of dissociated and unstable self-concept in constructing and maintaining processes of the self in social phobia and narcissism was discussed.
This study examined whether reassurance seeking explained changes in depression, anxiety, and self esteem. Reassurance seeking is a tendency to seek assurance repeatedly from significant others, asking whether they saw the person as a valuable, worthy and loveable partner. It was hypothesized that high reassurance seeking would increase depression and anxiety, but not self esteem. A questionnaire including scales of reassurance seeking, self esteem, anxiety, depression, and negative life events was administered twice to 152 undergraduates, 109 men and 43 women, at an interval of 2 months. Results showed that reassurance seeking predicted changes in depression and anxiety from Time 1 to Time 2, independently of negative life events they experienced during the interval. However, it did not predict change in self esteem.
This study was conducted to examine the relationship between self-focused attention and negative judgmental and interpretive biases in social anxiety. In Study 1, a questionnaire was administered to 194 university students, and 53 high and 48 low socially anxious students were selected in an investigation of the relationship. Results showed that only in social situations and under self-focused attention, high socially anxious students had more negative judgmental bias than low students. In Study 2, the relationship between self-focused attention and interpretational biases in social and non-social situations that were evaluatively ambiguous was examined with the students who participated in Study 1. Results indicated that the high interpreted social situations as more negative than the low only under self-focused conditions. These results revealed that in social situations the high showed negative judgmental and interpretational biases only under self-focused attention.
Research on attitudes towards ambiguity has centered around intolerance of ambiguity, which saw the attitudes as negative and one-dimensional. The purposes of this study were to develop a scale to measure attitudes towards ambiguity from multi-dimensional view, and to examine the relationship between the attitudes and adaptation. In Study 1, factor analysis was performed to examine factor structure of Attitudes towards Ambiguity Scale. Results showed that the attitudes consisted of the following multiple aspects, which were both positive and negative: enjoyment, anxiety, reception, control, and exclusion. In Study 2, to examine the relationship between them and adaptation, we investigated obsessive compulsive and depressive tendencies, as well as attachment styles in adaptation index. Results showed that negative attitudes towards ambiguity had a correlation with each of the followings: obsessive compulsion, depression, and insecure attachment style. In addition, the positive ones showed a correlation with secure attachment style. In conclusion, different aspects of attitudes towards ambiguity showed different patterns of relationship with adaptation.
According to Harter (1999), self-system develops from heteronomous to autonomous, but Kajita suggested earlier (1980) that self-oriented self-evaluative process and other-oriented process develop as independent and orthogonal factors. To examine these models, this study investigated developmental changes in the correlation between grandiosity and hyper-sensitivity, which were self-oriented and other-oriented processes, respectively, from the viewpoint that conceptualizes narcissism as self-worth maintenance system. Results showed that the correlation coefficient for each grade, from the 6th grade to undergraduates with a total of 1447 respondents, weakened progressively, and the correlation disappeared after the 9th grade. The result was consistent with the first of the two models; grandiosity and hyper-sensitivity gradually differentiated as the person matured. In conclusion, necessity of in-depth consideration of individual variation in self-worth maintenance system and its development was discussed.
The main cause of depression symptoms is not negative events that occur in the external world, but negative cognitions that arise in the internal world. Our research assumption was as follows: identity confusion is caused by negative and positive self cognitions during adolescence when self identity has to be established. A questionnaire study was conducted with 543 high school students in Korea. Covariance structural analyses revealed causes that could explain some of their depression. Identity confusion, which was caused in the process of establishing self identity, affected both negative and positive self cognitions, and then negative self cognition appeared to generate depression. Therefore, we may be justified to conclude that identity confusion was a vulnerability factor of depression in adolescence.
This study examined the relationships between assumed-competence that was based on undervaluing others, and emotional experiences of depression and hostility in interpersonal situations. Scales measuring assumed-competence and self esteem were administered to 445 university students. They were then requested to describe the most remarkable event of the day in their interpersonal relationships, and to evaluate various emotions at that time, each day for a week. Results showed that respondents who were categorized as assumption type, with high assumed-competence and low self esteem, experienced a higher level of depression and hostility in their interpersonal events than the other types. Furthermore, it was revealed that they had larger fluctuation in their emotions than those of high self esteem type, who possessed low assumed-competence and high self esteem.
Research that investigated validity and effectiveness of corrections using social desirability scales was reviewed. Social desirability scales seemed to detect response distortion, but the linear relation between response distortions and social desirability scales presupposed in the corrections using social desirability scale scores was seen only in a small subset of personality dimensions. The methods to correct individual scores using social desirability scores were effective in the aggregate level to some degree, but ineffective in the individual level, and failed to produce corrected scores that could approximate individuals' honest scores. Social desirability corrections using part or partial correlations did not improve criterion-related validity of personality constructs. It would be necessary to reexamine traditional correction methods that used social desirability scales, starting with the issue of what social desirability scales really measured.
Previous studies found that playfulness/openness of personality trait correlatedpositively with extreme response style (ERS), the tendency to use frequently extreme alternatives of a rating scale for any specic item content. Tsujimoto (2003) suggested that one's interest in abstracts might mediate the both. In the present study we examined the dierences between art and university students in ERS to explored his suggestion. The results showd that there was no signicant dierences between the both groups on the mean of ERS scores.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher rating and objective observation for preschool children's social skills. Ratings were made for social skills of 99 preschool children. Results showed that boys' social initiation skills and isolation behavior had a moderate, negative correlation, and girls' self-control skill and response readiness had a moderate, positive correlation. The correlation between teacher rating and objective observation was relatively low. The range and content of social skills that two rating methods measured appeared to be different.
The purpose of this study was to develop Japanese version of General Procrastination Scale (J-GPS) and to examine its reliability and validity. In Study 1, data obtained from 174 undergraduates were analyzed. Results showed sufficient internal consistency, factorial and concurrent validity with another procrastination scale. In Study 2, further data were obtained from 77 undergraduates. These data were analyzed to examine concurrent validity in terms of clinical and behavioral scales. Results indicated that J-GPS had a positive correlation with depression, anxiety, and actual procrastinatory behavior. These findings provided sufficient support for reliability and validity of J-GPS.