Increasingly more people in Japan know gender identity disorder (GID), and many with GID are publicly disclosing their condition and have begun talking about their situation openly through various media channels. We examined the narratives that we obtained through longitudinal interviews with a person with GID over a period of three years. Several transformations in them were identified, and three aspects were analyzed: changes in the person's medical needs and body recognition and acceptance, social relationships, and subjective evaluation of the condition. We found that the person experienced increasingly less body dysphoria and medical needs, experienced an expansion in social relationships and had more experiences of getting along both well and badly with others, and steadily increased the importance attached to living in close relationships with others. In discussion, we conceptualized the process of terminating medical treatment and quitting to describe himself as a person with GID, as that of “narrative about I” becoming at variance with “success narrative” in medical treatment, in which dissolution of a demonic narrative and re-organization of self narrative occurred.
We sought to understand how infertile women decided to stop infertility treatments by examining narratives of the experience they had with the treatments. We interviewed nine women and classified them into three types in terms of the dominant features of their narratives: Agency, Communion, and Hesitation. We selected a case that was most typical of each type, and analyzed them further. For the cases of Agency and Communion, we examined their developmental transformation up to the point of stopping infertility treatments from the viewpoint of different and common features. They differed in terms of mutual trust with their doctors in the clinical relationship. The women shared the change in their perspectives from preoccupation with the treatment to future-oriented views of their lives, following the experiences of difficulties and conflicts during the treatment. Next, we noted the potential for developmental transformation for Hesitation type, whose narratives tended to waver, in the process of retelling their stories. For all three types, narratives about their experiences with infertility treatments were organized dynamically, and all of them appeared to try to give meaning to their infertility experiences.
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in normal dissociative experiences and their meaning in Japanese young adults. In Study 1, 130 undergraduate, graduate, technical college students, with an average of 20.1 years of age, were asked to describe dissociative experiences they had. KJ analysis found eight main categories for the episodes: absent-mindedness and daydream, imaginative involvement and absorption, automatic behavior, simultaneous behaviors, detail amnesia, fugue, depersonalization, and desensitization. In Study 2, 28 undergraduate and graduate students, with an average of 20.6 years of age, who agreed to be interviewed after Study 1, participated. Three years later, three women were interviewed again, and results of case study for the three indicated that of the eight categories, they experienced absent-mindedness and daydream, imaginative involvement and absorption, automatic behavior, simultaneous behaviors, and weak depersonalization during the period. Analyses of their narratives showed that changes in experiences and meaning had strong relationships to developmental situations and tasks that the individuals faced.
The purpose of this study was to develop Metacognitive Beliefs about Worry Questionnaire. Factor analysis found two factors for metacognitive beliefs about worry: negative and positive. Cronbach's coefficient alpha demonstrated high reliability for each subscale of the questionnaire. Correlations of the subscales with other related scales were high, indicating convergent validity. In an examination of the questionnaire's validity, we conducted an experiment to investigate whether the subscale scores predicted real-time appraisals about worry when participants were put in a situation to worry in the laboratory. Results showed that the scores predicted the real-time appraisals. The authors discussed the characteristics of metacognitive beliefs about worry and potential contribution of the concept to psychological intervention for worry.
Currently, two models of personality are extensively studied: Cloninger's temperament and character model and the Big Five model. However, there are few studies that looked into the relationship of the two. Therefore, we examined the relationship in this study. Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and Big Five Scale were administered to 457 university students. Results indicated strong inter-correlations between variables of TCI and Big Five Scale, and suggested that the temperament and character model could explain the Big Five. In addition, for explanation of each factor of the Big Five model except the extroversion, it was suggested that not only temperament but also character were necessary. Finally, characteristics of each factor of the Big Five were discussed from the viewpoint of the temperament and character model.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder consists of two major symptoms: obsession and compulsion. However, similar types of thoughts and behaviors are also found among non-clinical population, which are called obsessive-compulsive tendency (OCT). The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between OCT of respondents and rearing styles of their parents. In Study 1, a questionnaire was administered to 230 students in Chinese universities. Obsessive-Compulsive Tendency Scale of five subscales was developed, which had high reliability and validity. In Study 2, relationship between OCT and parental rearing styles was examined. Multiple regression analyses revealed that parental rearing styles significantly predicted three subscales of OCT among men: endless rechecking, rightness, and doubt, and the other two subscales among women: washing compulsion and indecision.
The purpose of the present research was to investigate the relationship between personality traits and mental health, focusing on the two-dimensional model of social phobic tendency and narcissistic personality. A questionnaire of Two-dimensional Social Phobic Tendency and Narcissistic Personality Scale-Short version (TSNS-S), psychological stress response scale, and Five Factor Personality Questionnaire (FFPQ) was administered to 595 university students, 302 women and 293 men with an average of 19.8 years of age. First, reliability and validity of TSNS-S were examined, and they were found to be sufficiently high. The two personality traits showed meaningful correlations with FFPQ scores. Then, five personality types defined in terms of social phobic tendency and narcissistic personality were examined in relation to psychological stress response. Results revealed basic features in detail of the five personality types, regarding mental health when they faced psychological stress.
In the present study, we conducted a panel study of 450 elementary, junior high, and senior high school students, in order to examine the influence of mobile-phone use on two aspects of their friendship: depth and dependence. Results of data analysis showed that the more junior high school students use mobile phone, the less dependence and attachment in their friendship. The reverse was true for senior high school students: more phone use meant more dependence and attachment in their friendship. No similar effect was observed for the depth and intimacy aspect. Results of comparisons between age groups indicated that junior high school students were most strongly affected by mobile-phone use as a whole, and at the same time, it was suggested that there would be some reciprocal relationships between use of e-mail and dependence.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between emotional expression as an emotion-focused coping and depression of university students using a prospective research design. Participants were 341 undergraduates, who completed a battery of self-report questionnaires. They were the situational version of Emotional Coping Questionnaire (ECQ) to measure two types of expressing anger and depressive emotions (i.e., Emotional Expressions to Oneself and to Others), the situational version of General Coping Questionnaire (GCQ) for problem-focused coping, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression. The three measures were administered twice, T1 and T2, five weeks apart. Hierarchical regression analyses of the data showed that T1 Emotional Expression to Oneself had a significantly positive relationship with T2 depression in women. Results also suggested that depression reduced problem-solving coping in women with high depression. The possibility of intervention to reduce emotional expression to oneself along with enhancing problem solving is discussed.
The purpose of this study was to distinguish school adaptation and enjoyment of school life, and to investigate the relationship between psychological adjustment and students' views concerning domains of their school life. A questionnaire was administered to 407 junior high school students, and data analysis showed the following results. Factor analysis supported the distinction of school adaptation and enjoyment of school life. Multiple regression analyses suggested that how students viewed their peer, as well as how girls viewed extracurricular activity and study, predicted school adaptation, whereas views concerning teachers and school rules predicted enjoyment of school life. However, views concerning the class predicted both adaptation and enjoyment of the students. The distinction of school adaptation and enjoyment of school life was discussed, and it was suggested that peer relationship, which predicted adaptation, was the domain that students were likely to feel anxiety to, whereas teachers and school rules, which predicted enjoyment, were the domains that students tended to feel antipathy to.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tendency to avoid intimacy and depression and ego-identity in Japanese young adults. Two-hundred ninety-two university students, 125 men and 167 women, completed a questionnaire measuring the tendency to avoid intimacy with others, anthropophobic tendency, and depression and ego-identity. They were divided in data analysis into three groups: intimacy avoiding, anthropophobic, and no phobic/avoidant. ANOVA showed that intimacy avoiders endorsed fewer depressive symptoms and had higher scores on ego-identity than the anthropophobic. It was also shown that intimacy avoiders had lower scores on two ego-identity subscales than those without phobic or avoidant tendency. These results suggested that intimacy avoiders had better mental health than the anthropophobic, although they may be more prone to ego-identity crises in interpersonal relationship than those who were less afraid of intimacy.
The purpose of this study was to examine the Big-Five dimensions in daily language use. In Study 1, open-ended personality descriptions were generated by 125 undergraduate women, and were classified into Big-Five dimensions. In Study 2, evaluative and descriptive values of the descriptions were examined. Results showed that 96.5% of trait terms were successfully classified into Big-Five dimensions. The dimensions differed in their frequency of use, and the least frequently used dimension was Playfulness or Openness. In addition, it was shown that people used the personality trait terms that had high descriptive value in daily language more often than those low, while evaluative value did not show a similar pattern.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the person's current views of self and judgments of subjective temporal distance and ownership of experiences in the remembered past. Study 1 showed that an equally temporally distant episode was felt close or remote, depending on the congruency with current self-evaluation. That is, participants with high self-esteem reported that they felt positive events closer in time than equally distant negative events, whereas participants with low self-esteem reported that they felt negative events closer than positive events. Similarly, the “not me” feeling appeared to emerge from a mismatch between current self-evaluation and a remembered event. Study 2 also showed participants reported that they felt remembered episodes that were incongruent with their present self-concept more remote in time and as if “It does not belong to me,” regardless of actual temporal distance and memory ownership. These results suggested that current self concept had bearing on the feelings of subjective temporal distance and the “not me” feeling of the remembered past.
In this study, meta-analysis was conducted in order to examine how correlations between amount of television program viewing and intellectual aspects of personality would change with different program categories. Correlations obtained from 11 studies were divided into zero-order correlations and partial correlations. These correlations were then integrated for each program category. We found that the amount of viewing of news/documentary programs and educational programs each indicated a positive correlation with intellectual aspects. On the other hand, the amount of viewing of animation, drama, sports and violent programs each had a negative correlation with intellectual aspects. The results therefore suggested that taking program categories into consideration was important when discussing the relationship between television viewing and intellectual aspects of personality.
The purpose of this study was to develop Coping Scale for Japanese Elementary School Teachers and to explore its dimensional structure. Results of exploratory factor analysis suggested a four-factor model. Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis supported structural soundness and factor reliability of the scale. Results of hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the four factors of the scale were classified into two clusters: emotion-focused and problem-focused copings. Higher-order factor analysis for the secondary model based on the result of hierarchical cluster analysis obtained indices that showed satisfactory fit. The scale would be a valuable tool in evaluation studies of coping intervention.