This study investigated the reliability and validity of Action Control Scale 90 (ACS-90) that assessed action-state orientation, an individual difference in self-regulation ability. In Study 1, results suggested that Japanese-version ACS-90 had good internal consistency. Factor analysis of the scale identified two factors similar to those found in previous studies. In Study 2, its validity was tested in terms of the relationship between the scale and neuroticism, and prediction of subjective well-being together with neuroticism. Results showed that an interaction effect of action-state orientation and neuroticism significantly predicted subjective well-being. These findings suggested that Japanese-version ACS-90 had good internal consistency and validity, and that the relationship between neuroticism and subjective well-being was moderated by a self-regulation ability: action-state orientation.
The present study examined the relationship among conscious defensiveness, cynical hostility, and depression in university students. Participants were 642 university students, 418 men and 224 women. They completed a battery of questionnaires that included Cynicism Questionnaire (CQ) to measure cynical hostility, Conscious Defensiveness Questionnaire (CDQ) for conscious defensiveness, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that cynical hostility significantly predicted depression in men, while extremely high levels of cynical hostility tended to be associated with high levels of depression in low conscious defensive women. These findings were discussed in terms of interpersonal conflicts that women with high cynical hostility and low conscious defensiveness would experience.
The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of personality in the relationship between women's work-family conflict and mental health. A questionnaire survey was administered to 288 working mothers, with a mean age of 42.5 years, in dual-earner families. Temperament and Character Inventory based on Cloninger's seven-factor model was used to measure personality variables. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that labor hours, work-family conflict, and Harm Avoidance and Self Directedness of the personality inventory contributed to prediction of mental health. In addition, an interaction effect of work-family conflict and Self Directedness predicted mental health significantly. With a high level of work-family conflict, mothers with high Self Directedness scores had better mental health than those with low scores. Thus, Self-Directedness moderated the relationship between work-family conflict and mental health.
This study examined the relationship between identity status and communication with parents of male adolescents during the period of career decision making. University students, 348 males, completed a questionnaire that included scales of their communication with parents about their career decision making, and Japanese-version Rasmussen's Ego Identity Scale, and others. Factor analysis of their communication yielded four factors: avoidance of discussion, discussion to clarify situation, autonomous decision making, and connectedness. Avoidance of discussion had a negative correlation with identity achievement scores, and a positive correlation with moratorium scores. Discussion to clarify situation had a positive correlation with identity achievement scores. Factor analysis of father and mother communication as perceived by the students yielded three factors: individuality, connectedness, and inhibition of discussion. Identity achievement scores were higher for those with mutual-negotiation parents who were high on both individuality but high on connectedness, than for those with ambiguous parents who were low on individuality but high on connectedness, than for those with ambiguous parents support parents who were low both. These results suggested that responsiveness and acceptence behavior in parental communication was positively related to male adlescents' identity status.
First, the present study examined pre-existing guilt scales, and determined the aspects of trait guilt to be measured. Then, Trait Guilt Scale (TGS) was developed to measure the multiple aspects, and the scale's reliability and validity examined. Four components of trait guilt were hypothesized based on psychoanalytic theory: intra-psychic guilt, guilt of excessive gain, guilt of refracted “amae,” and guilt for relation maintenance, and items for each were collected. A trait guilt questionnaire was administered to a total of 793 university students. Results of factor analysis supported the four factor model for the questionnaire. TGS, with 26 items, showed high internal consistency and good test-retest reliability. In addition, good concurrent validity for TGS was found in terms of the correlation with PFQ-2-Guilt scale, convergent validity in terms of the correlations with PFQ-2-Shame scale, Indebtedness Scale, and the Self-rating Depression Scale, and discriminant validity in terms of the correlation with Situational Guilt Inventory.
In this study, the relationship of assertiveness with social information processing and psychological adjustment was examined, using a new assertiveness scale based on Four Requirements Theory of assertiveness (Watanabe, 2006). Three hundred and fifty-nine (359) university students completed a questionnaire. Results of path analysis indicated that four requirements of assertiveness had different effects on respective steps of social information processing. It was also revealed that the third requirement, concern for others, lowered mental health score, and the fourth, self directedness, lowered loneliness score. As a whole, results suggested that the first requirement, candid expression, and the third, concern for others, determined the direction of behavior, the second, control of emotion, served to adjust behavior, and the fourth, self directedness, added aggressiveness to behavior. It may be necessary in the next step of the research to investigate optimal levels of the requirements for better social adjustment.
The purpose of this study was to develop Sensation Seeking Scale for Japanese Adolescents (SSS-JA). In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis was conducted for 126 items collected from prior studies and our own preliminary study. Four factors were found for the data from 189 undergraduates: thrill and adventure (TAS), disinhibition (Dis), internal sensation seeking (IS), and daily novelty seeking (DNS). In Study 2, SEM analyses were conducted to examine factor pattern invariance across gender of the data from 480 undergraduates, and to compare means of the four factors between men and women, assuming factor pattern invariance across gender. Results indicated factor invariance for the four factors, and significant mean differences on TAS, Dis, and DNS between men and women. In Study 3, Cronbach α and test-retest reliability of the scale, with 545 undergraduates, showed that the four subscales of SSS-JA had good internal consistency and temporal stability. Convergent and discriminant validity of SSS-JA was also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop Expanded Response Styles Questionnaire, and examine its reliability and validity. To start with, we examined factor structure of the scale and found four factors: evasion, facing the fact, negative introspection, and diversion. Next, we examined its reliability and validity. Alpha coefficients and test-retest correlations were calculated to study reliabilities of the scale. Correlation coefficients with related scales of self-preoccupation, thought suppression, and problem solving style were also high, indicating validity. Also, the relationship between the scale and depression was examined. These results demonstrated that the scale had good reliability and validity.
The purpose of this study was to examine the inner changes that occur in beginners of classical ballet. Participants of the study were asked to write an introspective report after each lesson, and we found three categories that proved to be useful for the examination of changes in consciousness at different stages of learning. In addition, we looked at participants' specific thoughts, to identify the characteristics of cognitive activities in the person presumably at the stage of objective self-observation in the acquisition of structured cognition of ‘WAZA,’ i.e., techniques. Results from the introspective reports showed that while a new level of consciousness developed with progress in learning, occurrence of previous levels slowly declined. Results also showed development of broader perspectives, extending beyond instruments and moving techniques, as well as subdivided cognitions of more specific body parts, which replaced original cognitions of a whole body image.
The purpose of this study was to examine dissociation in relation to defense mechanism and coping in a community sample of college students. Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and a 24-item version of Tri-axial Coping Scale (TAC-24) were administered to 449 undergraduates, 231 men and 218 women. Simple correlation analysis indicated that DES had significant correlations with ‘extreme thoughts and aggression toward others’ and ‘suppression of emotion and alternative gratification’ factors of DSQ-40. Although it also had a significant correlation with ‘avoidant coping’ factor of TAC-24, multiple regression analysis indicated that its relationship with DSQ-40 was more substantial than with TAC-24.
In order to evaluate methods used for depression research in Japan, we reviewed 974 depression studies published in 18 Japanese journals between 1990 and 2006. Nine methodological and procedural characteristics in depression studies were identified and coded. Results revealed that journals could be classified into three types based on research methods in the articles published in them. In most case studies, researchers did not bother to use operationalized diagnostic criteria or measures of depression. Of the studies using depression measures, 19% were found to have used fewer than ten items to assess it. Furthermore, 26% divided participants by arbitrary boundaries. Possible improvements in the use of case studies and assessment tools for depression research were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between affective experience and friendship motivation, at the same time categorizing friendship events. Participants were 132 university and junior college students. Ten categories of friendship events were found, and results showed that strain and deterioration of relationship predicted depression/anxiety and hostility, and change of impression led to boredom. Hostility and boredom in turn had a negative correlation with intrinsic motivation. The importance of diversity in friendship events in examining the relationship between affective experience and motivation was discussed.
In this study, an Internet-based survey was conducted to study the relationship between perception of dry-wet personality dimension and motion patterns of gas and liquid that gave wet or dry impressions. Participants, 206 in total, observed online computer simulation movies of gas and liquid molecule motion patterns, and answered how dry or wet they perceived each particle's motion on each movie as in human behavior. Results showed that participants saw the motion of gas molecules as dry, and that of liquid wet as in human behavior.
Many studies using dot-probe task revealed that high anxious individuals show selective attention to threatening information. A previous study using neutral stimulus trials found that the dot probe effect was at least partially due to a disengagement effect. The current study compared high anxious group with low group, in order to determine whether the difficulty to disengage attention was found only for the high group. The current study also manipulated SOAs (stimulus onset asynchrony) in order to determine whether the difficulty to disengage attention persisted or not. Results indicated that high anxious individuals showed difficulty to disengage attention only under 0 ms SOA condition.
This study developed a Japanese version of Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC: Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994), and examined its reliability and validity with 272 participants. Factor analysis revealed that the Japanese version of CFC scale had one factor structure, as did the original version. Cronbach's alpha of the scale was .74, which showed adequate internal consistency of the scale. The Japanese version CFC had positive correlations with pathways thoughts, agency thoughts, and goal orientation, which indicated the scale's correlational validity.
The purpose of the present study was to develop a Japanese version of Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ) and examine its reliability and validity. Previous studies suggested that RRQ had two subscales: rumination and reflection. Rumination was dispositional self-attentiveness evoked by negative events, and reflection was dispositional self-attentiveness motivated by intellectual interests. Data from 241 undergraduates were analyzed, and factor analysis showed two factors, corresponding to the previous findings. Both subscales showed sufficient internal consistency and concurrent validity with clinical and personality scales. These findings provided support for reliability and validity of Japanese-version RRQ.