The purpose of this study was to clarify the process of conflict formation among children in classroom. A fourth-grade class during Japanese Language lessons was observed for five months. The observation focused on children's interactions that were not directly related to teaching and learning activities of their lessons. Two sessions were selected for analysis, because a conflict incident occurred during each. Results of classroom observation showed that conflict started with minor differences in opinions or friction among a few children, grew as others started taking sides, and finally became a full-blown incident when a child started to cry. In addition, it was shown that the targets of teasing and verbal attacks changed, depending on momentary interpersonal relationships among class children. It was also suggested that even the behavior of children that the classroom teacher believed to be appropriate for teaching and learning activities of their lessons, could become a possible cause for classroom conflicts in the context outside the activities. Finally, we discussed effectiveness and usefulness of classroom observation that focused on interactions not directly involved in lesson activities and future research directions of conflicts among children in classroom.
In Japan, many researchers use Social Desirability Scale (SDS: Crowne & Marlowe, 1960; Kitamura & Suzuki, 1986) in order to study social desirable responding. However, different researchers used different response formats and found inconsistent factors for SDS. We tried to develop a new Japanese version of social desirability scale, translating Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) by Paulhus (1991). In Study 1, we explored internal structure of the scale with factor analysis, and found two factors: self-deception and impression management, as in the original scale. In Study 2, the two factors found in Study 1 were verified by confirmatory factor analysis with data from another sample. In Study 3, we investigated validity in terms of the correlations between the new scale (BIDR-J), SDS and other scales. It was demonstrated that the BIDR-J and its component scales had good correlational validity. Finally in Study 4, we showed that BIDR-J had sufficient criterion-related validity.
The purpose of this study was to investigate a diathesis-stress model, focusing on narcissistic personality. Participants were 174 college students, 72 men and 102 women. They completed Narcissistic Personality Inventory 35 (NPI-35; Konishi, Okawa, & Hashimoto, 2006), in addition to scales of stressor, stress response, and happiness. About one month later, the same stressor, stress response and happiness scales were administered again. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that men with high narcissistic personality significantly increased scores on subscales of depression and heightened activity of autonomic nervous system if they had experienced stressful events. In contrast, women high on the trait with stressful events showed an increase in feeling of fatigue. These findings indicated that narcissistic personality was a vulnerability factor to stress.
Resilience is a personality characteristic that can moderate potential damages due to harmful events. In the present study, we assumed that resilience had four aspects in regard with available resources: (1) understanding of own personal resources, (2) utilization of the same personal resources, (3) understanding of environmental resources, and (4) utilization of the same environmental resources. Therefore, we developed four scales measuring these aspects, with responses of 447 undergraduates. In addition, correlations of the four scales with Zung's Self Depression Scale indicated validity of the scales. In conclusion, we argued that the four scales of resource understanding and utilization should clarify the concept of resilience and promote empirical research on the important personality characteristic.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by inability to adopt accepted social norms and is associated with deceitfulness, irresponsibility, impulsivity, and lack of remorse. This study investigated whether individuals high on ASPD traits were more impulsive than those low using two behavioral choice tasks. Sixteen undergraduates high on ASPD traits and 19 age- and education-matched controls performed both temporal and probability discounting tasks. In the temporal discounting task, participants chose either small but immediate or large but delayed rewards. Impulsivity was defined as relative preference for small but immediate rewards. In the probability task, participants chose either small but certain or large but uncertain rewards. Impulsivity was defined as relative preference for large but uncertain rewards. In the temporal task, individuals high on ASPD traits discounted delayed rewards significantly more steeply than the low, whereas there was no difference in probability discounting between the two. Temporal discounting had significantly correlations with repeated antisocial acts and transitory liaison of ASPD traits. These results suggested that disregard of long-term consequences underlay some of ASPD symptoms.
This study investigated the relationship of self-oriented perfectionism, which had four factors of desire for perfection, personal standard, concern over mistakes, and doubt of actions, with four factors of aggression: physical aggression, anger, hostility, and verbal aggression, and two factors of self-directed aggression: self-directed physical aggression and hostility. Four hundred and forty four (444) university students completed a questionnaire. Results showed that personal standard was positively related to verbal aggression; concern over mistake to anger, hostility, self-directed physical aggression, and self-directed hostility; and doubt of action to hostility and self-directed hostility. Also, causal models were examined of self-oriented perfectionism, aggression, self-directed aggression, depression and negative rumination. Results of covariance structure analysis were as follows: Maladaptive perfectionism enhanced cognitive-affective aggression, which in turn enhanced self-directed hostility. Maladaptive perfectionism enhanced negative rumination and depression, which in turn increased cognitive-affective aggression, and then self-directed aggression. The results were discussed in terms of their implications for intervention.
Gray (1970, 1982, 1987) developed a motivation based theory of temperamental traits: Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST). It postulates existence of two primary and orthogonal dimensions: sensitivity to punishment and sensitivity to reward. In the present study, multiple measurement strategy was used, and three scales most often used in their assessments were compared, to provide some empirical data for the assessment of individual differences in sensitivity to punishment and reward. We conducted correlational analyses together with Neuroticism (N) and Extraversion (E), and performed structural equation modeling. Results suggested that sensitivity to punishment factor was homogeneous, and factorial homogeneity of sensitivity to reward was insufficient. The two dimensions showed orthogonality, one of the original theoretical assumptions. And the two showed appropriate correlations with N and E. Combining multiple measurements allowed us to learn better the general structure of Gray's RST, and to help achieve more precise measurement.
In this study, we developed and attempted initial validation of Social Self-Regulation Scale. We posited a new construct, Social Self-Regulation (SSR), which had several facets of ability among adolescents. The SSR scale attempted to measure the ability to inhibit or to assert the self, depending on internal and external needs in a social setting, when there is discrepancy between desire, intention, and current perception. In Study 1, a questionnaire was administrated to samples of college students and high school students (N5673). Multidimensional structure of SSR scale was examined with factor analysis, and we found three factors of self-assertiveness, patience, and emotion and desire suppression. In Study 2, the relationship among Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System (BIS/BAS), Effortful Control (EC), and SSR was examined, with a survey of college students (N5400). Results were consistent with findings in existing studies, provided evidence for validity of the SSR scale. Finally, theoretical explanations of the findings and implications for future research were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among the following four variables: discrepancy between expectation and reception of support, emotional reliance, self-esteem, and depression. Longitudinal data from 44 university students were collected, with the first questionnaire measuring, among others, self-esteem, depression, expectation of support from a significant other, and emotional reliance, and the second two months later measuring self-esteem, depression, and reception of support from the same person. Results showed that the discrepancy between expectation and reception of support predicted lower self-esteem and higher depression, as reported by Nakamura & Ura (2000). Furthermore, the relationship between the discrepancy and low self-esteem was most apparent for those high on emotional reliance.
The present study examined whether mere subliminal priming of potential action consequences enhanced actors' feeling of intentionally causing the consequences. Under a subliminal priming paradigm, 26 university students performed one of two actions, which were followed by one of two visual stimuli. Immediately before each action, a masked prime-stimulus was presented, which was either congruent, incongruent, or unrelated to the post-action stimulus. Results showed that subjective feeling of authorship and experience of conscious will for “the consequence” depended on the congruency between the primed representation before and the actual stimulus following the action, even when the primed representation remained completely unconscious for the actor.
The relationship between feeling of inferiority and self-oriented perfectionism in adolescence was investigated. Adolescents (N5609) were asked to complete a questionnaire of 40-item feeling of inferiority scale and Multidimensional Self-oriented Perfectionism Scale (MSPS). Results of cluster analysis revealed four clusters of adolescents: (1) Low perfectionism, (2) High concern over mistakes, (3) High perfectionism, and (4) High personal standards. Results of analysis of variance indicated that adolescents with high concern over mistakes had significantly stronger inferiority feeling than other groups.
Emotional process at times goes awry. For instance, depersonalization disorder includes emotional detachment, which is evoked sometimes by stressful events, just like a common symptom of acute stress disorder. Similarly, psychopathy is characterized by weak emotional responses. However, although they appear to have something in common, these phenomena are not completely the same, and each has some different function for or influence on behavior. We investigated the differences between emotional detachment in depersonalization and weakened emotion in psychopathy, using Emotional Processing Scale (EPS). Path analysis revealed that emotional malfunctions in depersonalization could be separated into dissociation, which was common with primary psychopathy, and suppression, uncontrollability, and confusion, which were common with secondary psychopathy.
It was not clear that schizotypal people had the same difficulty, such as attention deficits, as schizophrenics frequently showed to some extent. In the present study, 22 volunteer participants with high and low scores on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, Brief version, performed an attention task. In Posner task, participants in high group were distinguished from those in low group by slower responses to targets in the right visual field than to targets in the left visual field, when attention was not first directed to the target location. The finding supported the concept of schizotypy, which posited a continuum of low to high to extreme high levels of schizophrenia.
Animal studies have been appealing to many area of psychology because, in comparison with human studies, they afford greater experimental control, more options for measuring physiological and genetic parameters, greater opportunities for naturalistic observation, and an accelerated life course. Thus, it makes sense that interest in and research on animal personality has flourished in recent years. Reviews of the literature show that: (a) personality exists and can be measured in animals; (b) studies of animal personality fall into three broad domains (animal-model research, behavioral ecology, and practical applications); (c) personality can be identified in a broad array of species; and (d) some traits show more cross-species generality than others. Conceptual and empirical analyses show that personality can be assessed in animals using rating and behavior-coding methods; comparisons of the two methods suggest that ratings are generally superior to behavior codings. Animal personality research is well placed to shed light on the genetic, biological, and environmental bases of personality and to illuminate research on personality development, personality perception, and the links between personality and health.