The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among the following four variables: discrepancy between expectation and reception of support, emotional reliance, self-esteem, and depression. Longitudinal data from 44 university students were collected, with the first questionnaire measuring, among others, self-esteem, depression, expectation of support from a significant other, and emotional reliance, and the second two months later measuring self-esteem, depression, and reception of support from the same person. Results showed that the discrepancy between expectation and reception of support predicted lower self-esteem and higher depression, as reported by Nakamura & Ura (2000). Furthermore, the relationship between the discrepancy and low self-esteem was most apparent for those high on emotional reliance.
The present study examined whether mere subliminal priming of potential action consequences enhanced actors' feeling of intentionally causing the consequences. Under a subliminal priming paradigm, 26 university students performed one of two actions, which were followed by one of two visual stimuli. Immediately before each action, a masked prime-stimulus was presented, which was either congruent, incongruent, or unrelated to the post-action stimulus. Results showed that subjective feeling of authorship and experience of conscious will for “the consequence” depended on the congruency between the primed representation before and the actual stimulus following the action, even when the primed representation remained completely unconscious for the actor.
The relationship between feeling of inferiority and self-oriented perfectionism in adolescence was investigated. Adolescents (N5609) were asked to complete a questionnaire of 40-item feeling of inferiority scale and Multidimensional Self-oriented Perfectionism Scale (MSPS). Results of cluster analysis revealed four clusters of adolescents: (1) Low perfectionism, (2) High concern over mistakes, (3) High perfectionism, and (4) High personal standards. Results of analysis of variance indicated that adolescents with high concern over mistakes had significantly stronger inferiority feeling than other groups.
Emotional process at times goes awry. For instance, depersonalization disorder includes emotional detachment, which is evoked sometimes by stressful events, just like a common symptom of acute stress disorder. Similarly, psychopathy is characterized by weak emotional responses. However, although they appear to have something in common, these phenomena are not completely the same, and each has some different function for or influence on behavior. We investigated the differences between emotional detachment in depersonalization and weakened emotion in psychopathy, using Emotional Processing Scale (EPS). Path analysis revealed that emotional malfunctions in depersonalization could be separated into dissociation, which was common with primary psychopathy, and suppression, uncontrollability, and confusion, which were common with secondary psychopathy.
It was not clear that schizotypal people had the same difficulty, such as attention deficits, as schizophrenics frequently showed to some extent. In the present study, 22 volunteer participants with high and low scores on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, Brief version, performed an attention task. In Posner task, participants in high group were distinguished from those in low group by slower responses to targets in the right visual field than to targets in the left visual field, when attention was not first directed to the target location. The finding supported the concept of schizotypy, which posited a continuum of low to high to extreme high levels of schizophrenia.
Animal studies have been appealing to many area of psychology because, in comparison with human studies, they afford greater experimental control, more options for measuring physiological and genetic parameters, greater opportunities for naturalistic observation, and an accelerated life course. Thus, it makes sense that interest in and research on animal personality has flourished in recent years. Reviews of the literature show that: (a) personality exists and can be measured in animals; (b) studies of animal personality fall into three broad domains (animal-model research, behavioral ecology, and practical applications); (c) personality can be identified in a broad array of species; and (d) some traits show more cross-species generality than others. Conceptual and empirical analyses show that personality can be assessed in animals using rating and behavior-coding methods; comparisons of the two methods suggest that ratings are generally superior to behavior codings. Animal personality research is well placed to shed light on the genetic, biological, and environmental bases of personality and to illuminate research on personality development, personality perception, and the links between personality and health.