This study examined physicians' explanatory model for suicide prevention in the statements made by physicians to patients with suicidal ideation. We asked physicians who had experiences of communicating with suicidal patients to describe the statements they made to the patients. A total of 166 responses to the open question were used in text-mining analysis, and frequently used words were identified. In addition, with correspondence analysis, we found five clusters for the statements: sympathy and support for confiding the problem, advice to see a psychiatrist, prognosis and recovery, no-suicide contracts, and meaning of life and consideration to others. We also discussed the relationship between the cluster variables and the patients' gender and age.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of daily stressors on the tendency toward depression and the role that self-worth played in the psychological stress process of fifth- and sixth-grade elementary-school children. A sample of 326 students participated in a questionnaire survey three times over a year. Daily stressors were assessed using measures of friend, study, and family stressors. Structural equation modeling using cross-lagged effects model found that daily stressor was a predictor of the tendency toward depression and that the causal relationship between self-worth and the tendency was bidirectional. In addition, each daily stressor had a negative effect on self-worth and a positive effect on the tendency. Moreover, ANOVA showed that self-worth had a buffering effect against the adverse effect of friend stressors. Children with greater self-worth apparently showed a reduced tendency toward depression, even when friendship was stressful. Implications of the model for intervention are discussed.
Effects of romantic relationship among university students were investigated. University students (N=340) were asked to respond to 75 questions regarding romantic relationship that were selected on the basis of a pilot study. Factor analysis found seven factors: Self-expansion, Fulfillment, Constraint, Relationship Anxiety, Economic Burden, Disorganized Life, and Heightened Evaluation by Others. These factors were important in romantic relationship, because participants who had a partner scored higher on each of them than those who did not. Results indicated that the correlations between the factors and relationship length were not significant. Comparison between men and women indicated that men were higher on Constraint and Heightened Evaluation by Others than women, whereas women scored higher on Disorganized Life. Moreover, whereas relationship satisfaction had a correlation with Self-expansion, Fulfillment, Constraint, Relationship Anxiety, and Disorganized Life, and relationship involvement with Fulfillment among women, only relationship satisfaction had a significant correlation with Fulfillment among men.
The purpose of this study was to develop Attachment Function Scale (AFS) that focused on the concepts of attachment function in Bowlby's attachment theory. AFS was expected to measure the three concepts of secure base, safe haven, and maintenance of proximity, with 15 items. Two hundred forty-six university students were asked to complete the scale. Factor analysis found the three factors as hypothesized, and measures of internal consistency for the three subscales showed sufficient reliability. In addition, AFS had a significant correlation with ECR-GO, a scale of adult attachment, and a negative correlation with hopelessness and loneliness. These results suggested that the three subscales of AFS were associated with internal working models of self, other, and social adaptation. Therefore, we found evidence for the validity of AFS as a measure of attachment function in the attachment theory.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of social comparison affect and behavior on academic performance in a causal process model. Junior high school students, 812 in total, participated in the study. With measurement equation modeling, I examined the causal process model that social comparison affect and behavior mediated the relationship between students' situational and individual difference factors and academic performance. Results indicated that upward social comparison, comparing oneself with better performing others, could lead to either high or low academic performance. If upward social comparison led to more inspiring affects, there would be more effort as coping behavior, which in turn had a positive effect on academic performance. On the other hand, if social comparison affects were more of resentment and humiliation, more avoidant behavior would be seen, producing a significant negative effect on academic performance.
The purpose of this study was to develop Japanese-version Paranoia Checklist (JPC), originally by Freeman et al. (2005), to assess persecutory ideation, and test its internal consistency and validity on a population of Japanese undergraduates. In Study 1, 244 undergraduates completed JPC and Paranoia Scale. Results indicated that JPC had a one-factor structure and high internal consistency. Also, Paranoia Scale had a positive correlation with JPC frequency, conviction, and distress scores. In Study 2, 124 undergraduates completed JPC as well as a questionnaire assessing trait anxiety, self-esteem, social anxiety, trait anger, and social support. Multiple regression analyses with JPC as dependent variable revealed that JPC was positively associated with trait anxiety, social anxiety, and anger, and negatively with social support. The results suggested that JPC was internally consistent and fairly valid, and that anxiety, social anxiety, anger, and social support appeared to play important roles in the development and/or maintenance of persecutory ideation.
We investigated how the word “seikaku” (which means character or personality) has been used in opinions written by judges to justify judicial decisions in criminal cases. We searched precedent decisions that included the word at a court Web site, focusing on criminal trials held between 1996 and 2006. We found 182 cases, with 346 passages. Four types of context for the word use as it pertained to the defendant were identified: description of defendant backgrounds not related to the determination of facts or appropriate punishment; comprehension of the crime based on defendant character; defendant character as a background to the crime; and defendant character as information for determining appropriate punishment. Different character types appeared in different contexts. The results suggested that the term “seikaku” was used in efforts to understand, explain, and evaluate various aspects of the defendant and crime.
This study examined the relationship between parental communication and identity of young women during the period of career and vocational decision making. University students, 215 women, completed a questionnaire that included scales of communication with parents about their career decision making, and Japanese version Rasmussen's Ego Identity Scale, and others. Factor analysis of mother and father communication as perceived by their daughters yielded three factors: individuality, connectedness, and inhibition of discussion. Those women with mutual-negotiation parents who were high on both individuality and connectedness, and those with supportive parents who were low on individuality but high on connectedness scored higher on identity achievement than those with ambiguous parents who were low on both. Those with a mutual-negotiation father were high on exploration than those with an ambiguous father. These results suggested that responsive and accepting parental behavior in the communication between young women and parents were positively related to young women's identity.
Depressed individuals have been characterized to lack cognitive resources during thought suppression. In order to probe psychological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we compared response latencies among depressed and non-depressed college students under lexical decision task. Seventy-three participants judged whether a presented letter string was a word or not while thinking or not thinking various concepts. The depressed individuals performed better than the non-depressed, only under the suppression instruction, suggesting that the depressed failed to allocate cognitive resource to the suppression task under the condition. Implications for the study of cognitive processes taking place among the depressed are discussed.
The relationship between Kretschmer's temperament types and Jung's psychological types of introversion and extraversion was investigated. Undergraduates, 304 in total, completed the common items of Type-Trait Integrated Questionnaire and Jung's Psychological Types Scale. Results indicated that cyclothymic temperament (syntonic) scores correlated positively with extraversion-introversion scores, and that schizothymic temperament scores correlated negatively with extraversion-introversion scores. In addition, there were significantly more extraverted types than introverted types in cyclothymic personality type, and there were significantly more introverted types than extraverted types in schizothymic personality type. These findings supported previous theoretical studies.
Self-leakage is defined as a subjective sense that one's inner state is leaking out for others to know without verbal expression, causing anticipation of negative outcomes. A similar phenomenon is egorrhea symptoms of “taijin kyofusho” (social phobia). The mechanism of self-leakage has not yet been hypothesized, and we aimed at proposing a causal model in the present study. Path analysis suggested that self-leakage was partly caused by the tendency to have delusional ideations and trait anxiety, i.e., interpretation bias. But, contrary to our prediction, social anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and public self-consciousness did not have enough influence on self-leakage.