The purpose of this study was to classify the subjective contents of ego-experiences and to understand how they were processed in the mind. University students (N=25) participated in individual semi-structured interviews about their ego-experiences. Analysis of the interviews showed that the subjective contents were classified into four categories: questions concerning the axis of time or space, sense of incongruity with oneself, skepticism toward real existence of the self or others, and awareness of original uniqueness of the self. Also, how the interviewees treated their ego-experiences in their mind was classified into four: accepting and reorganizing personal history, assimilating, trying to ascertain the meaning, and disowning. Specifically, it was observed that those who accepted their ego-experiences and reorganized personal history established their new self, while those who disowned theirs tried to maintain the style of their old self. Moreover, the case studies suggested that ego-experience could become a turning point for establishing a new self; in other words, the second I lives as I who live here and now, and it may paradoxically destroy or support I who live here and now depending on how it is treated.
Two studies examined the relationships among assumed competence based on undervaluing others, implicit self-esteem, and explicit self-esteem. In Study 1, 119 university students completed paper-and-pencil version of Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure their implicit self-esteem, in addition to scales of self-esteem and assumed competence. In Study 2, 155 university students completed computer-based IAT to measure their implicit self-esteem. Two basic findings emerged from the studies. First, assumed competence had a positive correlation with implicit self-esteem, although it had no significant correlation with explicit self-esteem. Second, people with low explicit and high implicit self-esteem showed a higher level of undervaluing others than the other groups.
Previous studies have suggested private self-consciousness has two contradictory aspects. One is an adaptive aspect to prompt self-knowledge and contribute to mental health, and the other is maladaptive, leading to depression. To clarify this paradox, Trapnell & Campbell (1999) proposed two constructs, rumination and reflection, and constructed Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire. Both are dispositional self-attentiveness; rumination is triggered by perceived threats, loss or injustice to the self, and reflection is motivated by curiosity or epistemic interest in the self. We investigated the causal relationships between the two aspects of self-consciousness and depression based on the diathesis-stress model in longitudinal design on a non-clinical sample. Hierarchical regression showed rumination and its interaction with depression were significant predictors of change in depression. On the other hand, neither reflection nor its interaction with stress predicted change in depression. These results indicated that rumination was a vulnerability or risk factor for depression. However, although reflection is a kind of self-consciousness, it had no relation to depression, which suggested that reflection could prompt self-knowledge without increasing negative feelings. It may have some implications as an adaptive self-focusing for clinical practice.
This study investigated how school organizational characteristics and social support predicted burnout in teachers. A questionnaire of Maslach Burnout Inventory as well as social support scale and questions about school organizational characteristics was administered to 287 teachers of elementary and junior high school. A covariance structure analysis demonstrated that school organizational characteristics had a direct effect on burnout, emotional support buffered the burnout effect, but instrumental support did not. These results should suggest that teachers' personal relationship with school management and colleagues need to be improved, and teachers specifically needed emotional support, in order to reduce teacher burnout.
Some clinicians have identified preoccupation with exaggerated ideal self as a common personality feature in hypersensitive narcissists and socio-phobic patients. Broucek (1991) and Okano (1998) regarded hypersensitive narcissists as individuals annoyed by shame that reflected the discrepancy between their exaggerated ideal self and devalued real self, while Kohut (1971) did not consider that they possessed high ideal self. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among predictors of social phobia, and synthesize Broucek's and Okano's view with that of Kohut. For this study, we developed a short version of Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale based on Kohut's perspective. In Study 1, the scale was administered to 216 students and its correlations with other scales examined. In Study 2, 249 students completed it and scales of ideal-and-real self-discrepancy, self-esteem, and propensity for social phobia. Results suggested that narcissistic vulnerability, as well as self-discrepancy, directly and indirectly exacerbated propensity for social phobia. In addition, it was found that self-discrepancy and narcissistic vulnerability had a positive correlation.
Diversity of interpersonal self refers to an overall variance of self-perception in the interpersonal relationships with different others. This study examined the relationship between diversity of interpersonal self and mental health. Ninety-nine undergraduates rated self-perception in terms of the three dimensions of social desirability, friendliness, and activity, when they were with each one of five intimate others in different relationships. Results showed that greater diversity of self-perception about social desirability led to poor mental health, but greater diversity about friendliness to good mental health. Diversity about activity did not predict mental health, but the overall level of activity did. Therefore, stable social desirability and flexible friendliness predicted good mental health. Future research should investigate the evaluation by others and satisfaction of the person and others about the relationships, in order to clarify the process of diversity-of-self effect on mental health.
In this study, relationship between friendship problems of high school students and four requirements of assertiveness was examined. Two hundred fifty-four high school students responded to a questionnaire. Results of Quantification Method Type I indicated that the second requirement, control of emotion, and the fourth, self-direction, had a negative linear relationship with friendship problems; as the scores for the requirements increased, friendship problems decreased. When the first requirement, candid expression, was extremely high, the person had problems of fearing being disliked by friends and being inconsiderate. And if the third, consideration for others, was extremely high, the tendency to fear conflicts and being ignored also became high.
A multidimensional scale for measuring empathy in elementary school children was developed and its reliability and validity investigated. Results indicated adequate internal consistency and temporal stability of the scale, suggesting it had good reliability. Correlations with Prosocial Behavior and Social Desirability Scales indicated sufficient validity of the scale. In addition, results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the Davis finding (1983) that empathy had four components. Development of empathy in elementary school children, as well as problems such as children's acquiescence set were also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine empathic embarrassment toward others of different psychological distances, and to compare those high on chronic susceptibility to embarrassment and those low. Participants were seventy-five female technical-college students. They completed a questionnaire that used six situations and four actors: oneself, family member, friend, and stranger. They indicated how much embarrassment they felt toward each actor in each situation. Results showed that empathic embarrassment occurred more frequently toward the person of close psychological distance, and those high on chronic susceptibility experienced empathic embarrassment more often.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that social skill deficits had on responses to stressors in elementary school children. Social skills and responses to stressors were measured in a survey of 403 elementary school children. About three months later, responses to stressors were measured again, along with occurrence of stressors during the interval. A hierarchical regression analysis found an interaction effect of social skills and stressor scores on post-interval physical complaints, and girls with more deficits in social skills reported more physical complaints.