In this study, relationship between friendship problems of high school students and four requirements of assertiveness was examined. Two hundred fifty-four high school students responded to a questionnaire. Results of Quantification Method Type I indicated that the second requirement, control of emotion, and the fourth, self-direction, had a negative linear relationship with friendship problems; as the scores for the requirements increased, friendship problems decreased. When the first requirement, candid expression, was extremely high, the person had problems of fearing being disliked by friends and being inconsiderate. And if the third, consideration for others, was extremely high, the tendency to fear conflicts and being ignored also became high.
A multidimensional scale for measuring empathy in elementary school children was developed and its reliability and validity investigated. Results indicated adequate internal consistency and temporal stability of the scale, suggesting it had good reliability. Correlations with Prosocial Behavior and Social Desirability Scales indicated sufficient validity of the scale. In addition, results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the Davis finding (1983) that empathy had four components. Development of empathy in elementary school children, as well as problems such as children's acquiescence set were also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine empathic embarrassment toward others of different psychological distances, and to compare those high on chronic susceptibility to embarrassment and those low. Participants were seventy-five female technical-college students. They completed a questionnaire that used six situations and four actors: oneself, family member, friend, and stranger. They indicated how much embarrassment they felt toward each actor in each situation. Results showed that empathic embarrassment occurred more frequently toward the person of close psychological distance, and those high on chronic susceptibility experienced empathic embarrassment more often.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that social skill deficits had on responses to stressors in elementary school children. Social skills and responses to stressors were measured in a survey of 403 elementary school children. About three months later, responses to stressors were measured again, along with occurrence of stressors during the interval. A hierarchical regression analysis found an interaction effect of social skills and stressor scores on post-interval physical complaints, and girls with more deficits in social skills reported more physical complaints.