In recent years, personality psychologists have focused increasing attention on the problem of meaning in human lives. Considering personality from the standpoint of the three layers of dispositional traits (the person conceived as a social actor), characteristic adaptations (the person as a motivated agent), and integrative life narratives (the person as author), this article identifies important features of personality that are associated with a person's sense that he or she is living a meaningful life. Dispositional traits associated with extraversion and conscientiousness appear to enhance meaning, whereas neuroticism is associated with lower levels of meaning in life. Characteristic adaptations, such as motives and goals, tend to specify what kinds of meanings people make and the specific areas in life where they make meaning. Strongly shaped by culture, integrative life stories show how the person authors a broad meaning for his or her entire life as seen over time.
This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics on depression in early adolescence. A total 417 adolescents completed a questionnaire twice, five months apart, which included the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) and questions about depression. Results showed that at Time 1 Self Directedness was related to more depression for boys, while Harm Avoidance was related to more depression for girls. After controlling for depression at Time 1, depression at Time 2 was predicted by low Reward Dependence at Time 1 for both boys and girls. For boys, depression at Time 2 was predicted by low Persistence at Time 1, and low Persistence at Time 2 was predicted by depression at Time 1. No correlation was found for girls.
There are no scales which assess how much Japanese college students disclose about themselves while developing intimate relationships. The present study developed a scale of self-disclosure to measure the depth of self-disclosure. We conducted a questionnaire study with 299 university students. The results showed that the scale had a high sensitivity indicating different depths of self-disclosure reflecting four different levels: hobbies (level 1), difficult experiences (level 2), foibles (level 3), and inferior personality characteristics and abilities (level 4). The students showed different depths of self-disclosure for different partners, and consistent correlations were found with the scales for intimacy motivation and psychological adjustment.
Three concepts regarding the sense that others can notice one's inner self have been proposed. However, the differences and relationships among these concepts have not yet been elucidated. This paper reviews these different concepts and the associated research literature. First, preconditions for arousing this sense of the inner self being noticed by others are discussed. Then, illusions of transparency (cf., Gilovich, Savitsky, & Medvec, 1998), feelings of self-leakage (cf., Tanno & Sakamoto, 2001), and feelings of transparency (cf., Tabata, 2006a) are reviewed and the characteristics of each concept are clarified by comparing and organizing them. Perspectives for investigating the relationships among these concepts are discussed.
The present article proposes a conceptualization of functional assertiveness which has a broad scope of application and is based on the social norm of appropriateness. Functional assertiveness is conceptualized as the communication of the speaker and the listener based on each other's perspectives. In developing this new definition of functional assertiveness, we address two issues confronting researchers, which are the situation-specific nature of topographical assertiveness and the difficulty of distinguishing assertive behavior from aggressive behavior. Functional assertiveness is a mutually satisfying communication whose effectiveness is assessed by whether or not the speaker's goal is accomplished and by the listener's perceived appropriateness of the communication. In this article, we suggest new areas for the application of functional assertiveness.
The Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale for Japanese Young Adolescents assesses the domains which comprise young Japanese adolescents' sense of their self-worth. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four domains of self-esteem sources: artistic competence, academic competence, athletic competence, and peer relationships. All subscales had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In addition, all subscales showed low to moderate correlations with other personality scales, including the big five factors and a narcissistic personality inventory, but not with the Rosenberg self-esteem scale.
This study examined differences of irrational beliefs and mental health in undergraduates (N=151) categorized into four groups based on prosocial behavior and overadaptation, respectively: High–High, High–Low, Low–High, Low–Low. The results showed that the scores for both irrational beliefs and mental health for the High-High group were higher than for the other three groups. The importance of treating oneself with kindness while helping others was discussed.
This study investigated concerns about privacy related to the contents of private information and reasons for desiring privacy. In a semi-structured interview, undergraduate and graduate students were asked to indicate information they desired to keep private and the reason for desiring privacy. The results indicated that nearly all participants considered that personal information should be private. Participants who were more concerned about privacy thought that more kinds of personal information require privacy. They tended to regard negative past experiences and distress as being private, and considered their expectations of hesitation of others, embarrassment, and avoiding decreased self-evaluation as their reasons for desiring privacy.
The study investigated the relationship between women's romantic fantasies and their satisfaction with marital life. The romantic fantasies of 44 women were assessed using implicit and explicit measures (Implicit Association Test and self reports). The results showed that women implicitly (but not explicitly) tended to associate their partners with a prince or hero of a fantasy story, and their implicit romantic fantasies negatively predicted their satisfaction in marital life. The findings suggest that women's implicit attitudes, a psychological dependency to be taken care of by their partners, would produce conflicts with their reality and thus negatively affect their satisfaction in marital life.
This study investigated beliefs leading to depressive rumination. Undergraduate students (N=155) completed the Positive Beliefs about Depressive Rumination Questionnaire (PBDRQ), the Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale (PBRS), and a scale of depressive rumination. The PBRS scores were positively correlated with the scale of depressive rumination, but the “Improvement of Problem Solving Ability” and “Promotion of Emotional Regulation” scores of the PBDRQ were not. The results suggest that the beliefs that rumination facilitates understanding of themselves and situations, as measured on the PBRS, were most related to depressive rumination.