The purpose of the present study was to clarify the concept of self-pity, which had not been studied much in Japan, develop self-pity scale through examination of open-ended answers and episodic information, and empirically examine the scale. In Study 1, we asked undergraduates about their experience of self-pity, and found that it occurred frequently in everyday life. Results also showed that self-pity contained emotions and reactions that were characteristic of being conscious of others. In Study 2, Self-Pity Scale was developed based on the results of Study 1, and then was completed by 322 young adults. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed three factors that were appropriate for our model. Measures of internal consistency and retest stability showed that the scale had sufficient reliability. In addition, correlations with locus of control, loneliness, and anger expression were examined to study its validity.
The aim of this study was to explore what factors helped young adults face negative emotions, and how these factors influenced their avoidance of such emotions. In Study 1, 156 undergraduates completed an open-ended questionnaire. Based on the analysis of the answers, 27 items for facing negative emotions were developed, and along with a 10-item avoidance scale, 320 undergraduates answered them in Study 2. Factor analysis found five factors that helped face negative emotions: supportive others, confidence in negative mood regulation, comfortable environment, painful experience in the past, and will for growth. Results of path analysis indicated that confidence in negative mood regulation, supportive others, and comfortable environment were related to avoidance of negative emotions directly or indirectly. The three factors seemed to be crucial when we wanted to study how young adults faced or avoided their own negative emotions.
The present study developed a questionnaire to assess the endorsement of positive beliefs about depressive rumination, and investigated which aspects of the beliefs predicted depressive ruminative tendency. In Study 1, Positive Beliefs about Depressive Rumination Questionnaire (PBDRQ) was developed, which had four subscales: avoidance of negative influence on one's life, improvement of problem solving ability, promotion of emotional regulation, and avoidance of aggravation of the present state. In Study 2, PBDRQ showed adequate concurrent validity and test-retest reliability. In Study 3, the scores on avoidance of negative influence on one's life and avoidance of aggravation of the present state of PBDRQ had a positive correlation with depressive ruminative tendency. The results suggested that treatment targeting the beliefs about disadvantages of not ruminating, i.e., avoidance of negative influences on one's life and avoidance of aggravation of the present state, would effectively decrease depressive ruminative tendency.
Previous studies have revealed that extraversion and neuroticism are among the most important trait determinants of subjective well-being. However, the mechanism underlying the relationship between personality and subjective well-being are yet to be clearly delineated. The present study examined mediating effects of valence of daily life events on the links between extraversion, neuroticism and subjective well-being. College students rated how pleasant or unpleasant a variety of daily life events were, and how frequently they experienced them. Results showed those high on extraversion tended to rate positive interpersonal events as more pleasant than those low, which then led to their higher subjective well-being. In contrast, those high on neuroticism experienced job- and study-related difficulties more frequently than those low, which lead to lower life satisfaction and self-esteem.
This study examined the relationship of ego-experience and personality. Ego experience is defined as asking questions about “I,” such as “Why am I the person I am?” In Study 1, with 163 undergraduates, Big Five measurements suggested that strength of the relationship varied depending on the degree of seriousness of the experience. Those who had serious ego-experience had significantly higher neurotic and lower conscientiousness scores than those who did not. Study 2 explored what extent past ego-experience of young adults predicted increase in current existential loneliness or psychological well-being, with 346 undergraduates. Results showed that those who had subjectively meaningful ego-experience had significantly higher existential loneliness scores than those who did not.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between oblivious and hyper-vigilant types of narcissism, looking at their self-esteem and social anxiety. Undergraduates, 344 in total, completed NPI-S, three subscales of Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale (hypersensitivity to approval/admiration, covert sense of entitlement, and inhibition of self-exhibition), self-esteem scale, and SADS. Results indicated that narcissism was divided into three categories: the first had high self-esteem and low social anxiety, the second high social anxiety and low self-esteem, and for the third, the two were neither high nor low.
This study examined whether information-processing style mediated the effect of interpersonal intolerance of ambiguity (IIA) on mental health. Path analysis showed that IIA had a positive effect on stress response. Rationality mediated the effect, and there was a direct effect as well. On the other hand, intuition did not mediate it. These results suggested that rationality to some extent played an important role as a mediator between IIA and mental health
This study investigated the relationship among negative rumination, self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and envy, and four factors of self-oriented perfectionism: desire for perfection, personal standard, concern over mistakes, and doubt of actions. One hundred and forty eight (148) university students completed a questionnaire. Results showed that shame and envy had a positive correlation with negative rumination. Also, covariance structure analysis suggested that concern over mistakes led to negative rumination, which was mediated by envy. Implications of the present findings and future research directions are discussed.
In this study, lexical decision task was used to examine information processing function in internal working models of attachment. It was hypothesized that when initials of best friend were presented as a prime stimulus, relationship-specific model would operate in addition to general model. Participants were 68 undergraduates. Results of hierarchical regression analyses on reaction inhibition, which was average reaction time on negative targets minus average reaction time on positive targets, revealed that primed participants showed larger reaction inhibition when they were presented with relationship-related words. The result supported the hypothesis of this study. Finally, limitations and future directions of this study are discussed.
The present study examined depression among Japanese college students and its relationship to four types of aggression: physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility. We used Japanese version of Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992; Ando et al., 1999). Analysis of correlation coefficients of the data from 140 undergraduates showed that depression had a positive correlation with anger and hostility, while it showed a negative correlation with verbal aggression. The result suggested that college students with high depression tended to feel anger and hostility easily. However, they were less likely to show verbally aggressive behavior.