This study examined the effect of internal working models of attachment (“anxiety” and “avoidance”) on interpersonal information processing. A lexical decision task was conducted with 64 university students. The dependent variable was the discrepancy in reaction times for positive and negative stimuli. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that for relationship-related stimuli, the discrepancy in reaction times was significantly affected by “avoidance”, as well as by the interaction of “anxiety” and “avoidance”. These effects were most prominent when the scores for both “anxiety” and “avoidance” were high. For personality-related stimuli, the discrepancy in reaction times was not affected by either “anxiety” or “avoidance”. These results indicate that processing of relationship-related information was affected by internal working models of attachment, especially by “avoidance”.
The feelings that are evoked when a person is scolded, such as humiliation, shame, and guilt, related to the characteristics of the scolder were investigated. The results indicated that scolding by a person who was disliked evoked a sense of humiliation. A feeling of shame was evoked by a scolder who the person did not want to offend. Guilt was evoked by a scolder who the person wanted to be liked by. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that variables related to the scolder did not directly affect the mending of the relationship, but the sense of guilt and humiliation mediated the mending process. Guilt promoted the mending process, while humiliation suppressed the process.
This study developed the “Humor Coping with Interpersonal Stress Scale” (HCISS) for use with Japanese university students. Study 1 (n=987) examined the factor structure and internal consistency of this scale. Results showed that the 12 items in the HCISS conform to a one-factor structure, with adequate factorial validity as well as high internal consistency. Study 2 tested the reliability and construct validity. Test-retest reliability (n=370) revealed satisfactory stability of the HCISS over a 5- to 6-week period. Construct validity was demonstrated in comparison with peer ratings (n=96) and with the Rochester Interaction Record (n=37). The HCISS is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for research with adolescents and young adults.
Studies of resignation have had inconsistent findings, which may be due to difficulties in measuring this concept. This study developed a “Resignation Orientation Scale” (ROS) which measures an individual's tendency to have intentions in giving up goals. The ROS consists of 2 factors: Proactive Resignation (PR) and Avoidant Resignation (AR). A cluster analysis using data from ROS, classified subjects into 3 clusters. Cluster 1 had low scores for both factors. Cluster 2 had high AR scores, and was lowest in Rumination Response for Problem Solving and highest in Depression and Distraction Response for Avoidance. Cluster 3 had high PR scores, and was lowest in Depression and Negative Rumination Response, and highest in Distraction Response for Mood Change.
This study examined the relationships between two kinds of achievement motivation (self-fulfillment and competition) and two aspects of self-esteem (level and instability). University students (N=57) participated in a one-week diary survey. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed a level×instability interaction of selfesteem on self-fulfillment motivation. A high level of self-esteem was associated with strong motivation for self-fulfillment when self-esteem was stable. In contrast, high level of self-esteem was associated with weak motivation for self-fulfillment when self-esteem was instable. Neither level nor stability of self-esteem was significantly associated with motivation for competition. Discussion focused on the importance of considering both level and instability of self-esteem in analysis of achievement motivation.
This study investigated how different coping strategies for romantic break-ups (regretted, rejected, and avoidant coping) and the psychological detachment from the ex-romantic partners affect the sense of coherence (SOC; Antonovsky, 1979, 1987), which is an aspect of mental maturity. Undergraduates (60 males, 54 females) who had experienced romantic break-ups in the past year completed a questionnaire including stress coping for recent romantic break-ups, psychological detachment from ex-romantic partners, and the Orientation to Life Questionnaire (SOC scale). Structural equation modeling suggested that psychological detachment from ex-romantic partners directly increased SOC. There were also mediating effects related to coping strategies. Regretted and rejected coping strategies decreased SOC, whereas avoidant coping strategies increased SOC.
University students' expectations for same-sex friends, opposite-sex friends, and lovers were investigated. University students (N=115) were asked to respond to 35 questions regarding expectations for same-sex friends, and for opposite-sex friends, and for lovers. Factor analysis found five factors: trust and support, outward attractiveness, consideration, active exchange, and mutual improvement. The results indicated that for same-sex friends, both men and women expected trust and support, consideration, active exchange, and mutual improvement. For opposite-sex friends, both men and women expected trust and support, consideration, and active exchange. In addition, men expected outward attractiveness, while women expected mutual improvement. For lovers, both men and women expected all of the 5 factors.
Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) proposes a comprehensive framework for human motivation in various life domains that has been extensively researched. A meta-analysis was conducted (1) to examine the magnitude of correlations among motivation subscales based on self-determination theory, and (2) to investigate the dimensions underlying the motivation subscales. A comprehensive literature review yielded 87 correlation matrices from 115 articles. The results of the meta-analysis suggest that the estimated population correlations between two adjacent motivations tended to be larger as they progressively became more self-determined from amotivation to intrinsic motivation. An exploratory factor analysis of the estimated correlation matrix revealed two factors, self-determination and controlled motivation. Ways to validate motivation scales and use of indices of motivation are discussed.
This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Oxford Schizotypal Personality Scale (STA). Participants included two samples of undergraduates. The results showed high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The STA had significant positive correlations with the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feeling and Experiences, and the Paranoia Checklist. It was not correlated with the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. This indicates that the STA has good psychometric properties and convergent and discriminant validity. These results indicate that the Japanese version of the STA is a highly reliable and valid scale of positive schizotypal personality characteristics.
This study investigated successive changes of psychophysiological responses related to social anxiety using a speech task. Fifteen university students completed the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE) and the Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT) which measured their implicit associations between social situations and emotions. During a speech task, psychophysiological responses (electro-dermal activity: EDA; heart rate: HR) were assessed. The results showed that both EDA and HR were reduced through the speech task. For EDA, however, there was a significant difference between high and low GNAT groups. The implications for implicit variables are discussed.
This study tested the effects of hardiness on subjective stress after acute stress. Forty-eight students answered a hardiness scale and were administered the 20 min Uchida–Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test. Subjective stress was measured with the Phasic Stress Scale (PSS) before and after the task. Then, participants filled out questionnaires appraising the stressor. The low-hardiness group (n=24) showed more subjective stress than the high-hardiness group (n=24). However there were no significant differences between the two groups in the appraisal of the stressor. The results suggest that hardiness decreases the subjective stress, even though the participants did the same amount of a stressful task and had the same appraisal of it.